Full Project – Intercity transportation (a case study of Transport Corpration of Anambra State (TRACAS)

Full Project – Intercity transportation (a case study of Transport Corpration of Anambra State (TRACAS)

Click here to Get this Complete Project Chapter 1-5




An inter-city transportation also called a long distance, express over the road, commercial or highway bus or service is a public transport service using coaches to carry passengers to a significant distance between different cities, towns or other populated areas.

These buses are using diesel fuel, unlike transit bus services, which have frequent stop throughout a city or town. An intercity transport generally has a single stop at one location in or near a city, and travel long distances without stopping atall.

Inter-city transportation services may be operated by Government agencies or private firms. Inter-city transportation can serve areas or countries with no train services or may be set to compete with trains by providing a more flexible or cheaper alternative. Transportation is an integral part of distribution. This is because an item produced where it is needed or demand. Again large scale production cannot exist in a vacuum.

Transportation therefore makes it possible for the distribution of the products from the area where they are sold, it help the conveyance of goods from the rural to the urban areas.

City transportation cannot exist; transportation plays an important part in the economic growth, civilization and globalization of a city. The major things a city needs are transportation means, communication and connection with the outside word.

Since the past one half decades there have been a phenomenal increase in the demand for inter-city passenger’s travels using public and private transport services in the developing countries of the word. This has been due to increase in personal income, improved infrastructure and availability of vehicle for long distance travels (Oyesiku, 1995).

In Nigeria for instance, the demand for inter-city and regional trips using public transport rose 41.5% in 1986. The inter-city passenger trips do not occur by chance but occur because of the need for them. There are varied socio-economic development activities and used in the respective urban centers such as Schools, Market, Recreational Centre’s, Churches, Hospitals, and Industries, Private and Public Offices. It is because of all these activities people have to move around.

An inter-city coach service may depart from a bus station with facilities for travelers or simple roadside bus stop. A coach way interchange is term (in the United Kingdom) for a stopping place on the edge of a town, with connecting local transport. Park and ride facilities that allows passengers to begin or complete their journey by automobile.

Inter-city bus routes may follows direct high-way for shortest journey times, or travel via a scenic route for the enjoyment of passengers. Inter-city buses may run less frequently and fewer stops that a transit bus service. One common arrangement is to have several stops at the beginning of the trip, and several near the end, with the majority of the trip non-stop on highway some stops may have service restriction, such as “boarding only” (also called “pickup only”) and “discharge only” (also called “set-down only”) Routes aimed at commuters may have most or all scheduled trips in the morning heading to an Urban Central Business district with trips in the evening mainly heading toward suburbs.

Intercity coaches may also be used to supplement or replace another transport service, For instance when a train or airline route is not service.

SAFETY: Statistically, inter-city bus service is considered to be very safe mode of transportation. For instance, in the United State there are about 0.5 facilities per 100 million passenger miles travels. When accident do occur, the large passenger capacity of buses means accidents are discs torus in their magnitude.


Transportation network plays a role in arrangement of land uses as it provides links from one city to another. With transportation networks, people are able to carry from daily activities as efficiently as possible. In spite of the advantage which transportation provide, one can observe that the influx of population into the city causes manifestation of its effect on our arterial roads and environment at large. The increase in the demand for intercity transport reduces free flow of traffic and sometimes causes accident, the resultant effect is it increase in fare charged by operators in order to cover the long distance and the time frame of the journey, the existence of bad road on some routes has depreciated the efficiency of vehicles that convey people from region to another.

The general downward trend of the nation’s economy which was part of the global depression of 1980’s, this affected all sectors of which transport sector is one them.

Majority of Nigeria living in cities felt this impact more than those in the rural areas. This was because the commuting distance of people increased considerably than it used to be before 1980. This example show that it was becoming increasingly difficult and insufficient to trek in cities because of the real expansion of the cities.

Travelling on Nigeria road is bad enough. Inter-city travelers face a number of challenges that pale into insignificance compared to what they go through in the hands of drivers and their accomplices. Rowdiness of the park mighty at times put passengers into confusion.

Not too-long ago, transporters were directed not to exceed three passengers a seat for mini buses in any inter-city journey. Initially, they complied but these days, the rule is being violated as about four passengers now struggling on a seat. This is as a result of inconsistency in Government police and implementation.

Poor maintenance of existing road gives room for accidents, low speed limit, as well causes traffic problems. Low speed limit which will make the traveler spend more hours than was supposed to spend.

Poor management and operational system as the transport can make the company to run the risk of not meeting it targeted goals. In order for an organizational structure to be effective, goal making needs to be a two-way process. When upper management does not seek the input of the rest of the company to create company goals, then resentment can set in and morale begins to drop.


It is very imperative that solution offered by this project are meaningful, economical and implementable. The main aim and objective therefor have to be formulated to correct the deficiencies and improve on the merits identified from studies of existing terminals of TRACAS motors. Not only TRACAS but to all the transport companies in Nigeria.


An inter-city transportation is important because it is an integral part of the functioning of any society, and advances in transport have made possible changes in the way we live and ways societies are organized. Transportation exhibits a close relationship to the style of living, the ranges and location of productive and leisure activities and the goods and services, which will be available for consumption. Since the collapse of the rail system in Nigeria, inter-city transport has assumed a wider dimension and has become the most utilized way.


The fundamental  reasons for this study is that of realizing the problems, establishing, evaluation and giving a particular solution using planning criteria’s thereby creating alternatives, implementing and monitoring the progress of the alternativeness. There is need to put in place a dynamic structure that will reduce road accident. It is by this, that we can put in place a sustained free flow of vehicles on our road.


  1. What are the routes for the TRACAS inter-city transport services?
  2. What is the company capacity of their vehicles?
  3. What is the fare structure in relation to their various routes?
  4. What is the quality of services rendered by the company?
  5. What is the public view on their mode of operation?


The number of modes employed in an urban area depends on the size of the urban and population that make daily travel.

The choice of any mode by an individual’s depends on factors such as Availability, Affordability, Safety, Efficiency and Reliability. So far transportation system to achieve its aim, the various modes used for moving people from one origin to destination must meet the above listed factors.

In order words the essence of this research is to critically examine the most appropriate mode which urban travelers used for inter-city commuting and assess how to get at the modes conveniently.


Awka (Igbooka) is the capital of Anambra State, Nigeria with an estimated population of 301,657 as at 2006 Nigeria Census. The city is located about 400 miles east of Lagos in the Centre of the densely populated Igbo heartland in Southeastern Nigeria.

The West-East federal highway links Lagos, Benin city, Asaba, Onitsha, and Enugu to Awka and several local roads links it to other important town such as Ekwulobia, Agulu, Enugwu-Ukwu, Abagana and Nnewi.

Strategically, Awka is located midway between two major cities in Northern Igbo land, Onitsha and Enugu which has informed its choice as an administrative Centre for the colonial authorities and today as a base for the Anambra State Government.

Awka has a certain kind aura about it, because it was the place of the black’ssmiths that created implements which made agriculture possible-Chinna A.

Awka is one of the oldest settlements in Igboland established at the Centre of the Nri Civilization which produce the earliest documented bronze works in sub-Saharan Africa around 800 AD and was the cradle of Igbo Civilization. The earliest settlers of Awka were the Ifiteana people which translates into people who sprouted from the earth. They were farmers, hunters, and skilled iron workers who lived on the banks of the Ogwugwu stream in what is known as Nkwelle ward of Awka.

The deity of the Ififeana was known as Okika-na-ube or the god pre-eminent with the spear and Ififeana were known as Umu-okanube or “worshippers of Okanube” which eventually became shortened Umu-oka and eventually oka and its analyzed version “Awka” in ancient times, Awka was populated by elephants with a section of the town named Ama-enyi (haunt of elephants) and a pound Iyi-Enyi where the elephants used to gather to drink. The elephants where hunt for the prized Ivory tusk (okike) which was kept as a symbol to the god okanube in every hollow of the tusk.

Overtime, the town become famous for metal working of a high level and its blacksmiths were prized throughout the region for making farming implements, Dane guns and ceremonial items such as Oji (staff of mystical power) and Ngwuagilija (staff of Ozo men).

In pre-colonial days Awka also became famous as the home of the Agala Oracle a deity that was said to be a daughter to the great Longjuju Shrine of Arochukwu. The Agala Oracle (Chinua Achebe A. drew his inspiration book “Things fall apart”.

In modern time, Awka has adapted to the republican system and currently divided into two Local Government Area, which is called Awka North and Awka south with local representatives. However, it still preserve traditional system of governance with the represented Ozo title men often consulted for village and community issues and a paramount cultural representatives, the UZU who was elected by all Ozo titled by rotation amongst different village to represent the city a state function.

Today, Awka people can be found all across the global many working assailed professionals in a wide range of fields. As a result, there is a lanyeAwkadiaspora located primarily in the UK and in the USA. There, they have formed social clubs like Awka Union, in USA, Canada, Awka Town Social Community UK, Ireland and its has been away for people to enjoy their culture as well as to engage in community self-help projects.


Although quality efforts were made to produce most information about TRACAS motors, some limitation were unavoidable such as

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Financial constraint: Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

The task of gathering reliable data needed for this work has been a great task to the researcher, this is because of the people in the area were reactant is giving out information.

Inability to answer research question accurate



Get the Complete Project

This is a premium project material and the complete research project plus questionnaires and references can be gotten at an affordable rate of N3,000 for Nigerian clients and $8 for international clients.

Click here to Get this Complete Project Chapter 1-5





You can also check other Research Project here:




Full Project – Intercity transportation (a case study of Transport Corpration of Anambra State (TRACAS)