Full Project – Assessment of encroachment on floodplain along river Kubanni Zaria

Full Project – Assessment of encroachment on floodplain along river Kubanni Zaria

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Historically, floodplains have been attractive to human settlements for the availability of fertile land, freshwater supply and transportation. These perceived advantages led to the beginning of modem settlement areas (Bue, 1967). Floodplain is a vital part of the river/stream ecosystem that acts as flood buffer, water filter, nursery, major center for biological life and provides fresh water for wetlands (Tadaferua,2003). Floodplain is the part of a river morphology that is most prone to flooding in the event of over bank spill accompanying high intensity rainstorm surface-runoff, collapsed or deliberate discharge from reservoirs.  Most early urbanization thrived along valleys and floodplains of major rivers (Langbein, 1978).

Floodplain encroachment has seriously increased flood risk and damage potential, especially of urban floods due to heavy socio-economic infrastructural development on these floodplains. Gilbert (1991) asserted that urban encroachment into floodplain alters the integration of surface• runoff with the main channel, reduces  surface water storage and conveyance  capabilities, and reduces water quality of receiving waters and adjacent lands, in addition to other secondary effects such as depletion of water resources, cumulative impact on wetlands and pollution of downstream surface waters. Floodplain encroachment has caused urban floodplain management to become a major concern worldwide, especially the contemporary rising trends in urban flooding.  The problem  is even more  critical  in developing  cities where there is poor  control  over land use practices  within  floodplains   and  inadequate  institutional   mechanism  to  enforce  floodplain ordinances  (George, 2006).




Urban planning is particularly crucial when dealing with delicate areas like floodplains, erosion prone areas, and ecologically sensitive regions.. The overwhelming need of land for development is what usually leads to encroachment and sprawl of developments into urban floodplains and agricultural land the desire for land is so alarming that River Kubanni act as the drainage channel had its floodplain encroached by communities, this was due to the following reasons:

  1. Weak development measures.
  2. Rapid urbanization and increase in population growth
  3. Obstruction of the direction the natural drainage/ water ways by building on its route.
  4. Dumping and deposition of wastes from their houses and farmlands into the river bed, making it silted and shallow.
  5. Communities within river floodplain lack formal planning which has resulted to haphazard and irregular development of built up structures on the floodplains.
  6. The neglect  of proactive  urban  planning  and  management  techniques  (floodplain mapping,  land  use  management,  zooning  and  development  control.

As a result of the above, so many lives and properties have been lost in communities that are located along river kubanni. It is therefore pertinent to assess the extent of encroachment over time and the resultant effects with a view of proffering solution to the problems.


1.2 AIM

The aim of this research is to assess the encroachments along River Kubanni floodplain with a view to suggest physical planning strategies for effective management.


The aim of this research will be achieved through the following objectives;

  1. To review the concepts, techniques, approaches of floodplain and its management in urban centers.
  2. To identify the causes of encroachment in the study area
  3. To assess the extent of encroachment on floodplains in the study area
  4. To proffer physical planning solutions to the problems identified.


Loss of lives and properties can be prevented if adequate measures are put in place. The study will therefore help in addressing future occurrence of disasters along flood prone neighborhoods in Kaduna State and other places. No amount of effort is too much when the lives and properties of citizens are saved from destruction.


The scope of this research covers physical developments encroachments along River Kubanni in Zaria urban area. River Kubanni flows in a total length of 21 km into river Galma, the river start from For the purpose of this research the study will be limited to 5.3 km and communities that encroached into the river and its tributary floodplains.(GRA {River Road}, Tudun Wada, Tudun Jukun.

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Full Project – Assessment of encroachment on floodplain along river Kubanni Zaria