Full Project – Impact of urban expansion on infrastructure
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Urbanization is a major cause of loss of coastal wetlands. Urbanization impacts wetlands in numerous direct and indirect ways. For example, construction reportedly impacts wetlands by causing direct habitat loss, suspended solids additions, hydrologic changes and altered water quality. Indirect impacts include changes in hydrology and sedimentation’s which substantially alter wetlands. It also exerts significant influences on the structure and function of coastal wetlands, mainly through modifying the hydrological and sedimentation regimes, and the dynamics of nutrients and chemical pollutants.
Natural coastal wetlands are characterized by a hydrological regime comprising concentrated flow to estuarine and coastal areas during flood events, and diffused discharge into groundwater and waterways during the nonflood periods. Urbanization, through increasing the amount of impervious areas in the catchment, results in a replacement of this regime by concentrating rain run-off. Quality of run-off is also modified in urban areas, as loadings of sediment, nutrients and pollutants are increased in urban areas. While the effects of such modifications on the biota and the physical environment have been relatively well studied, there is to date little information on their impact at the ecosystem level.
Nigerian cities such as Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Enugu, Port-Harcourt, Kaduna and Calabar grow mainly through rural-urban migration. This urbanization process has outpaced the existing urban management system. 1996 World Bank reports on Nigeria indicated that the growth rate of urban areas increased from 20 percent in 1970 to 33 percent in 1993. It is also projected that by the year 2025, estimated 75 percent of Nigeria’s population of about 245 million persons would be expected to live in towns and cities.
The urban expansion phenomenon is defined as a certain form of urban development with low density, scattered, car-dependent and negative environmental, social and economic impacts (Hass & Lathrop, 2003). According to these impacts, it is believed that urban expansion demonstrates a threat for urban sustainability, since it indicates high level of land, water and energy consumption, as well as increase pollutants and wastes (Mohammadi & Zarabi & Mobaraki, 2012). However, achieving sustainability in all aspects of contemporary cities is extremely essential. Thus, Brundtland commission gave a definition of sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own”. Furthermore, the form of a city has potential to affect its sustainability. Nevertheless, it is extensively accepted that there is a connection between the form, size, density and uses of a city and its sustainability (Morgan, 2011).
In historical terms, urbanization on any scale is essentially a recent. A feature of the last 100 and years. Urbanization has been estimated that before the beginning of the 19th C only 3% of the world’s population lived in town of over 5000 people. By the present this has risen to near 4%. Expressed in a different way the world, population increased ¾ between 1800 and 1960. The world urban population increased thirty-four. Between 1950 and 1970 the world population rose from 28% to 38% (Devis, 1972).The UN defines urbanization as the course of shift in population from a rural to urban civilization. Numerically expressed urbanization denotes the increases in the share of the population that resides in urban areas predominantly because of net rural to urban migration (Devis, 1972).
Urbanization process has been associated with other important aspects such as economic, social, and environment. Based on UN (2014), urban living is often associated with higher levels of literacy and education, better health condition, greater access to social and economic services, and enhanced opportunities for cultural and political participation. Nevertheless, rapid and unplanned urban growth as well as urban expansion threatens sustainable development when the necessary infrastructure is not developed or when policies are not well-implemented. Unplanned or inadequately managed urban expansion leads to rapid sprawl, pollution, and environmental degradation, together with unsustainable production and consumption patterns (UN, 2014). The rapid urban growth, high population density and high consumption rate of residents in megacities has led to a wide range of local and global socioeconomic and environmental impacts which requires attention from the world community. Since it will significantly affect the global sustainability and future prosperity. Continuing urbanization or migration from rural to urban areas will expand the number of megacities, and it concedes that megacities are often plagued by environmental deterioration, inadequate housing, traffic congestion, slums, crime, and homelessness and so forth (Makinde, 2012). Brian (2000) proposed urbanization issues such as: urban poverty, the rising crime rate, solid waste disposal, housing for the poor, environmental protection, pollution, and so on. are being emphasized by the government. Jusoh and Rashid (2008) argued that those issues need to be tackled holistically to ensure the role of urban centre as the engine of economic growth will be continuously maintained and enhance.
Urban expansion have significant impact on biodiversity hot spots around in the worlds moreover, urban expansion will encroach on or destroy habitat for 139 amphibians 41 mammalians and 25 birds species that are easier on the critically endangered lists of the international union for conservation of natural environment. The phenomenon of urban heat is land has become a growing concern. Incidence heat island is formed when industrial and urban areas are developing resulting in greater production and retention of rural area (Partk 1987).
Urban expansion is the main problems in most developing countries. Our country Nigeria also one of the country’s facing the problem of urban expansion. It has been experiencing rapidly agricultural land use transformation in to urban land use due to expensive urban expansion. This town increases in size from time to time by four sides. That means North, South, West and East side. The urban expansion affects peasant land due to this expansion of town many farmers displaced from their land and loss of their farming land.
Infrastructure services—including power, transportation, and telecommunications, provision of water and sanitation, and safe disposal of wastes—are central to economic production and urban growth. It is commonly agreed that infrastructure plays an important role in stimulating urban land development and private economic activity (Gramlich, 1994, Démurger,2001). The adequacy of infrastructure—which can contribute to diversifying production, expanding trade, coping with population growth, reducing poverty, or improving environmental conditions—helps determine a country’s success (World Bank, 2004) by accommodating economic and urban growth (Calderon and Serven, 2004). Infrastructure has been used as a tool to stimulate the growth of human settlements in many urban areas. Policy makers and planners have used infrastructure systems to attract private investments for housing and economic development. Despite this, the link between infrastructure and urban growth remains understudied, and infrastructure research has developed in isolation from the large literature on urban growth.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There has been a renewed focus on the study of urban systems in the last few years, as urbanization remains a major development challenge exerting awesome pressure on social, economic and environmental sustainability (Pickett et al., 2001). Cohen (2004) was of the view that in developing countries, urbanization is associated with natural population growth, rural–urban migration, convergence in rural and urban lifestyles, and the economic and political processes associated with globalization. Though urban areas currently account for about 3% of the Earth’s surface, the ecological footprint associated with urban expansion has important environmental consequences especially on wetland ecosystems.
Housing shortage and poor housing conditions, the result of massive urbanization are life threatening, sub standard housing, unsafe water and poor sanitation in densely populated cities are responsible for 10 million deaths worldwide every years and are a major factor in preventable environmental hazards, which are responsible for 25% of all premature deaths worldwide (UN – Habitat, 2003).
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research is to examine the impact of urban expansion on infrastructural facilities in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. The research objectives include;
- Describe the socio-demographic characteristic of the respondent
- Examine the effect of urban expansion and quality of infrastructure in the study area.
- Identify the level and availability of infrastructural facilities in Eti-Osa Local Government Area.
- Examine the relationship between urban expansion and infrastructural development in the study area.
- Examine the challenges of provision of infrastructure in the study area
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the available infrastructures in the study area?
- What are the challenges of providing infrastructure in the study area?
- What are the major causes of urban expansion in the study area?
- What are the relationship between urban expansion and quality of infrastructure in the study area?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is significant relationship between urban expansion and infrastructural development.
H1: There is no significant relationship between urban expansion and infrastructural development.
H0: There is significant effect between urban expansion and quality of infrastructure.
H1: There is no significant effect between urban expansion and quality of infrastructure.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The most predominant effect of urban expansion is increase in urban population. Rapid growth of town population growth factors are natural increase in population and migration to urban area searching job opportunities better life and others. Both internal and external migrations contribute to urban expansion, in addition to this are It uses to create safe and quality urban environment, To conduct further research to address the concern of displaced people, To provide solution for in the study area, It helps the administers and municipality workers of the town to take the information about urban growth and conducted problems, It provides information for those who will like to conduct detailed and reliable studies on the urban expansion impact on infrastructure..
1.6 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study will cover Eti-Osa Local Government, the town has been expanding horizontally to all direction and some parts of this local government are found on the surrounding of the towns are subject to this study. This study also focuses on the impact of urban expansion on infrastructure, infrastructure in terms of electricity, road, water supply and healthcare facilities in Eti-Osa Local Government area.
1.7 STUDY AREA
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Full Project – Impact of urban expansion on infrastructure