THE INFLUENCE OF STRIKE ACTION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS.
1.1 Background Of The Study
The influence of strike action on the academic performance of tertiary institutions has been a subject of significant research and debate. According to a study by Oghuvbu (2008), strike actions in tertiary institutions have a direct negative impact on the academic performance of students. The study found that frequent strikes lead to a disruption in the academic calendar, which in turn affects the continuity of learning and the assimilation process of students. This disruption often results in poor performance as students are unable to adequately cover the curriculum within the stipulated time.
Furthermore, a study by Adebayo (2013) revealed that strike actions not only affect the academic performance of students but also their psychological state. The uncertainty and anxiety caused by strikes can lead to a lack of focus and concentration, which are crucial for academic success. This psychological impact further exacerbates the negative effects of strike actions on academic performance.
In contrast, a study by Okebukola (2014) argued that while strike actions disrupt the academic calendar, they do not necessarily lead to poor academic performance. The study suggested that students often use the strike period to engage in personal studies and revision, which can potentially improve their academic performance. However, this perspective is highly dependent on the individual student’s initiative and discipline.
However, the majority of the literature supports the view that strike actions have a negative impact on the academic performance of tertiary institutions. A study by Akomolafe (2015) found that the frequent strikes in Nigerian tertiary institutions have led to a significant decline in the quality of graduates. The study argued that the constant disruption of academic activities leads to half-baked graduates who are ill-prepared for the job market.
Moreover, a study by Oyekanmi (2016) found that strike actions have a negative impact on the reputation of tertiary institutions. The study found that frequent strikes lead to a decline in the ranking of institutions, which in turn affects the value of the degrees awarded by these institutions. This decline in reputation further compounds the negative effects of strike actions on academic performance.
Furthermore, while there is some debate on the issue, the majority of the literature suggests that strike actions have a negative impact on the academic performance of tertiary institutions. However, more research is needed to fully understand the extent of this impact and the mechanisms through which it occurs.
1.2 Statement Of the Problem
The problem of strike action in tertiary institutions is a significant issue that has been affecting the academic performance of students. According to Akinboye (2005), strike actions, especially those that are prolonged, disrupt the academic calendar and lead to a reduction in the quality of education. This is because the time lost during strikes is often not adequately compensated for, leading to rushed syllabuses and inadequate learning.
Furthermore, Oghuvbu (2008) posits that strike actions lead to a lack of continuity in academic activities. This discontinuity can cause students to lose interest in their studies, leading to poor academic performance. The psychological impact of strikes, including stress and anxiety, can also negatively affect students’ academic performance.
Moreover, the problem is not just limited to the students. According to Olusakin (2010), strike actions also affect the teachers and the institution as a whole. Teachers are often demotivated during strikes, which can affect their teaching performance when they return to work. The reputation of the institution can also suffer, leading to a decrease in student enrollment.
The problem is further compounded by the fact that strike actions are often the result of unresolved issues between the tertiary institutions and their staff (Adebayo, 2006). These issues, which often revolve around salaries and working conditions, can lead to a vicious cycle of strikes if not properly addressed.
The problem of strike action in tertiary institutions is a complex one that affects all stakeholders. It leads to a reduction in the quality of education, affects the psychological well-being of students, demotivates teachers, and damages the reputation of the institution. Therefore, it is a problem that requires urgent attention and resolution (Oghuvbu, 2008).
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Generally, the purpose of the study is to find out how strike action influences the academic performance of student in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Specifically it seeks to:
- Ascertain the extent to which strike action influences the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
- Identify the causes of strike action by the various unions in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
- Find out the implications of strike action in the Nigerian tertiary system.
- Suggest possible solution to the incessant strike action in our tertiary institutions.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- To what extent does strike action influence the academic performance of students?
- What are the causes of strike action in tertiary institutions in Nigeria?
- What are the implications of strike action in the Nigerian tertiary system?
- What are the possible solutions to strike actions?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: The extent strike actions influences the academic performance of students is low.
Ha: The extent strike actions influences the academic performance of students is high.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of studying the influence of strike action on the academic performance of tertiary institutions is multi-faceted and far-reaching. Firstly, it provides an in-depth understanding of the direct impact of strikes on the academic calendar, which often results in extended academic years. This delay in the academic calendar can lead to students losing interest in their studies, leading to a decline in their academic performance.
Secondly, the study highlights the psychological impact of strikes on students. The uncertainty and inconsistency that come with strikes can cause significant stress and anxiety among students. This emotional turmoil can negatively affect their concentration and focus, thereby affecting their academic performance. Understanding this psychological impact can help institutions develop strategies to support students during strikes and minimize the negative effects on their academic performance.
Thirdly, the study underscores the economic implications of strike actions. Extended academic years due to strikes mean students spend more time and resources in school, which can lead to financial strain. This financial burden can force students to engage in part-time jobs, leaving less time for their studies and potentially affecting their academic performance.
Fourthly, the study brings to light the societal implications of strike actions. Strikes often lead to a delay in the production of graduates, which can affect the supply of skilled labor in the economy. This delay can have ripple effects on the economy, affecting sectors like healthcare, education, and technology that rely on fresh graduates.
Fifthly, the study emphasizes the need for effective communication and negotiation between tertiary institutions and their staff. Understanding the impact of strikes on academic performance can encourage institutions to prioritize dialogue and negotiation over strike actions. This can lead to more stable academic calendars and improved academic performance.
Lastly, the study is significant as it can inform policy-making. Policymakers can use the findings to develop policies that minimize the occurrence of strikes in tertiary institutions. These policies can contribute to a more conducive learning environment, which can enhance the academic performance of students.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study would examine the Influence of strike action on the academic performance of tertiary institutions with particular reference to Imo State University. The respondents for the study will be specifically obtained from mass communication students of the school.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 DEFINITION OF THE STUDY
Industrial Relations: A tripartite relationship involving three parties namely: – the owner of work, the employees or their representatives and government agency for the purpose of setting job rules and regulations.
Strike action: This is what happens when a group of employees conduct a work stoppage which will affect the condition of the job generally.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
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THE INFLUENCE OF STRIKE ACTION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS.