Full Project – Impact of motivation on employees performance in the public sector
Motivation refers to a complexity of forces that inspires a person at work to intensify his desire and willingness to use his potentialities to perform in order to achieve organizational goals or objectives. This study investigates the relationship between motivation and the level of employees performance as applied to Ministry of Economy planning, Ilorin. Structured Questionnaire was used as the instrument for the research work. This instrument was tested for reliability and validity of its content. The results of the tests were certified by experts. The study used stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques in selecting the respondents. A sample of 100 respondents which included management, senior and junior staff members, of the Ministry was used for the primary data. Simple percentages, distribution tables and pie chart statistical tools were used to analyse the primary data while Chi-Square (X2) was applied to test the only hypothesis formulated for the study at 0.05 level of significance.
The findings revealed that motivation was the major factor that affected employees performance. Furthermore, the study showed a direct strong and positive relationship between motivation of workers and their performance. This study hereby recommends that the management teams in organizations should always carry out a thorough study on the various motivational tools that can appeal and motivate their workers. Such motivational tools can include: involvement of workerss in decision making, rotation of workers, provision of fringe benefits, payment of bonuses to workers, and promotion of deserved staff to higher positions of authority.
1.1 Background of the Problem:
The term motivation is derived from the Latin word ‘movere’which means to move (Baron, Henley, McGibbon and McCarthy, 2012). Certo (2016) describes motivation as giving people incentives that cause them to act in desired ways. Motivation has also been described as the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior (Nelson, 2013).
It is commonly agreed that there are two types of motivation, namely extrinsic and intrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is that behavior which an individual produces because of the pleasant experiences associated with the behavior itself (Mosley, Pietri and Mosley Jnr, 2012). They stem from motivation that is characteristic of the job itself. Examples are receiving positive recognition, appreciation, a sense of achievement and meeting the challenge. According to Beer and Walton (2014), intrinsic rewards accrue from performing the task itself, and may include the satisfaction of accomplishment or a sense of influence. Mosley, Pietri and Mosley Jnr. (2012) describe extrinsic motivation as the behavior performed, not for its own sake, but for the consequences associated with it. Examples include salary, benefits and working conditions. Extrinsic rewards come from the organization as money, perquisites or promotions from supervisors and co- workers as recognition (Beer and Walton, 2014). Employees are motivated by a combination of both factors at any given point in time (Riggio, 2013).
Globalization is being experienced by most of the organizations in Kenya. Neeraj (2014) states that the opportunities and challenges of leadership and management are significantly different from that of the past and in particular, the last decade. Industrial psychologists and management practitioners have long been interested in searching for factors which influence motivation and productivity (Chung, 2013). According to Stanley (2012), in today’s marketplace, where companies seek a competitive edge, motivation is the key for talent retention and performance. No matter the economic environment, the goal is to create a workplace that is engaging and motivating, where employees want to stay, grow and contribute their knowledge, experience and expertise. Chung (2013) continues to state that in an effort to find the determinants of motivation and performance in industry, industrial psychologists and managerial practitioners have developed a variety of theories of (and approaches to) human motivation. Many psychologists have developed motivational theories in terms of human needs or motives, while most management scholars have developed managerial theories in terms of incentives or inducements (Riggio, 2014).
Traditionally, the study of job performance has been based on two somewhat independent assumptions: that performance can be understood in terms of the individual’s ability to perform the tasks, and that performance depends solely upon the level of motivation (Chung, 2013). Motivation is generally defined as the psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s level of effort, as well as a person’s persistence in the face of obstacles (Stanley, 2012).
The responsibility for motivation is three-fold: it falls on the senior leadership, the direct manager and the employee (Bhuvanaiah and Raya, 2015). Numerous factors are involved, from trust, engagement and values (individual and organizational) to job satisfaction, achievement, acknowledgement and rewards. Motivation is essential for working autonomously, as well as for collaboration and effective teamwork (Stanley, 2012). Motivating employees for better performance encompasses these critical factors: employee engagement, organizational vision and values, management acknowledgment and appreciation of work well done, and overall authenticity of leadership (Neeraj, 2014).
Performance appraisal is one of the most important human resource (HR) practice, administered in organizations by which supervisors evaluate the performance of subordinates (Neeraj, 2014). Aguinis (2013) implies that the focus of the performance appraisal is measuring and improving the actual performance of the employee and also the future potential of the employee; it aims to measure what an employee does. Performance appraisal is generally regarded as one of the most crucial human resource management functions (Judge and Ferris 2013), furthermore; a competent performance appraisal and management system is an indispensable part of an organizations human resource management adequacies (Guest, 1997). Employee reactions to appraisal in terms of perceived employee fairness, accuracy, and satisfaction are important components of appraisal effectiveness because these perceived employee reactions can motivate employees to improve their performance (Taylor, Tracy, Renard, Harrison and Carroll 2015). That is, performance appraisal serves as a means for providing feedback that can result in improved performance (Tornow, 2013).
Research in performance appraisal has demonstrated that performance appraisal characteristics (such as appraisal purpose and source) can elicit positive employee reactions to performance appraisal and, which in turn, can motivate employees to improve their performance (DeNisi and Pritchard 2016). Therefore, by focusing the attention on performance, performance appraisal goes to the heart of personnel management and sets out different objectives which are directly responsible for the Career development of employees and continued growth and development of the organizations (Selvarajan and Cloninger, 2016).
Employee turnover is a universal problem that all organizations around the world face (Stanley, 2012). One of the factors that contribute to high employee turnover is de-motivation (Mosley, Pietri and Mosley Jnr, 2012). There is a growing consensus among managers and leaders about the significance of combining effective motivation incentives to encourage good performance (Cole and Kelly, 2011). In order for organizations to meet their objectives, they must have a workforce that is motivated and works towards achieving the said objectives (Steers and Porter, 2011).
Motivating employees is a challenge and keeping employees motivated an even greater challenge (Levy, 2013). Today, organizations are under intense pressure to identify and implement programs that will prove effective in improving employee productivity (Deci, 2013). It is no longer enough to increase salaries and expect increased performance; it is more complex than that (George and Jones, 2013).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Overtime, there has been a steady increase in most Nigerian industries, the crisis is as a result of a poor working condition, stringent rules, poor and delayed payment of workers’ wages and salaries.
Again the crisis also results from the failure of the top management to appreciate to human element as the most crucial factor and the determinant of attainment of goals and objectives this result into frustration which manifests itself differently by individual or workers. It is view of this that this research intends to look at the impact of motivation on the employee performance in public sectors taking Ministry of Economy planning, Ilorin as a case study.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Is there relationship between motivation and employee performance?
- What is the impact of motivation on employee performance?
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the impact of motivation on employee performance in public sectors taking Ministry of Economy Planning, Ilorin as a case study.
Other specific objectives of the study include;
- To examine the relationship between motivation and employee performance.
- To examine the impact of motivation on employee performance.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant relationship between motivation and employee performance.
H1: There is significant relationship between motivation and employee performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study could be useful to Ministry of Economy planning, Ilorin and indeed other organizations in Nigeria and beyond in improving their level of productivity and workers’ effectiveness in future. It will also aid management in making decision on how employees could be motivated, not only with money but other incentives. The study would also benefit students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the impact of motivation on employee performance using the Ministry of Economy planning, Ilorin, kwara state as a case study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In research of this nature it is quite necessary to define some of the key occurring terms. The essence is to make them operational in the context in which they have been used.
Personnel: This refers to the people who work for an organization.
Performance: This is a measure of how well the personnel do in the organization so as to achieve the goals and objectives.
Satisfaction: The state of being contended pleased or the state of acquiring what one wants or need the act of satisfying.
Remuneration: This simply means in amount of money that is paid for somebody for the work that have been done.
Organizations: This refers to a group of people that forms as business club etc. together to order to achieve a particular aim this also means the act of making arrangement or preparation for something.
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Full Project – Impact of motivation on employees performance in the public sector