Full Project – Glass production in relation to the construction of an aluminum sliding window

Full Project – Glass production in relation to the construction of an aluminum sliding window

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Natural glass has existed since the beginning of time formed when certain types of rock melt as a result of high temperature, phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, lightening strikes or the impact of meteorites and then cool and solidify rapidly.

According to McCray, (2014), “The very first glass known to the stone age people which was used for making weapons and decorative objects was Obsidian, black volcanic glass.

Also, Pliny the Elder (A.D 23-79), opined that Phoenician merchants transporting stones actually discovered glass (or rather become aware of its existence accidentally) in the region of Syria around 5000 B.C. Pliny tells how the merchants, after landing rested cooking pots on blocks of nitrate placed by their fire. With the intense heat of the fire, the blocks eventually melted and mixed with the sand of the beach to form an opaque liquid.


By the time of crusades, glass manufacturing was developed in Vernice and it became glass making center of the Western World. In 1291, glass making equipment’s were transferred to the island of Murano. During the 15th Century, Venetian glass blower, Angelo Barovier created cristalo, nearly colourless, transparent glass. By the late 1500’s, many venetians went to Northern Europe seeking better life where they established factories and brought the art of venetian glass to wing. “Douglas, 1972”.

After 1890, glass use, development and manufacture began to increase rapidly. Machinery has been developed for precise, continuous manufacture of a host of products. In 1902, Irving W. Colburn invented “the sheet glass drawing, which made possible, mass production of window glass. In 1904, the America Engineer, Michael Owens patented automatic bottle blowing machine. In 1959, new revolutionary float glass production was introduced by Sir Alastair Pilkington by which 90% of flat glass is will manufactured today.

What Is Glass?

America Scientists, in 1945, defined glass as “an inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing”. However, this definition may not be applicable this day. Also, Wilde, (2008), stated that “The glass state is a category of the amorphous state and encompasses solids that may be softened by heating to viscous liquids which reverts to non-crystalline solid when cooled.

Frank and Sam (2016), Opined that glass is an X-ray amorphous solid that exhibit the glass transition. Glass is used in making building blocks, windows, tables, doors, utensils, kitchen wares etc.

Scientifically, the term “glass” is often defined in a broader sense, encompassing every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (that is, amorphous) structure at the atomic-scale and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses.

These sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative than traditional glass.

The main constituent of Flat Glass is SiO2 (silica sand). This has a high melting temperature in the region of 1700 degrees C and its state at this temperature is like syrup on a very cold day. The basic building block of silica has a tetrahedral pyramid shape with silicon at its centre linked symmetrically to four oxygen atoms at its corners: it has the chemical formula SiO4 and is negatively charged (Beerkens, 2008)


Important glassmaking chemistry the basic reaction


Na2CO3 + SiO2                         Na2SiO3 + CO2


Na2SiO2                                Na2OSiO2

For practical and economic reasons, the high melting point and viscosity of silica is reduced by adding sodium oxide (a flux) in the form of a carbonate and the sodium-oxygen atoms enter the silicon-oxygen network, in accordance with their valency states. These atoms are known as Network Formers. Other major constituents of Flat Glass: Calcium and Magnesium enter the network structure as Network Modifiers and the action of these modifiers is to make the structures more complex so that when the components are melted together, in the cooling process, it is more difficult for the atoms to arrange themselves in suitable configurations for crystallization to occur. In the glass making process, the cooling rate is arranged such that viscosity increases and the mobility of the atoms is hindered thus preventing arrangements and crystallization from occurring (Schep, 2003)


This study is aimed at determining glass production process:

  1. To know types of glass
  2. To ascertain the properties of glass
  3. To determine the uses of glass in the construction of a sliding window.




On cooling molten silica quickly, a random organized network of these tetrahedral are formed, linked at their corners, to give an amorphous material known as vitreous silica.

This glass is often referred to as a super cooled liquid in that it has no crystallization or melting point and does not exhibit the phenomenon of the latent heat of crystallization or fusion.


The scope of the study is on glass production, to know the types, properties and uses of glass in the construction of a sliding window.


The research was limited by time and the researcher were also affected by restriction of movement by the institution authority. The researchers did not also make use of so many books that were meant to be in the school library because there were no enough books related to the topic in the library.


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Full Project – Glass production in relation to the construction of an aluminum sliding window