Full Project – Development of a robotic fire fighter
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The twenty-first century is being called an Internet Industrial Revolution due to the rapid rise of technological systems. The advancing technologies of this modern industrial revolution are
increasing preventability and recovery from destruction caused by both natural and human-made disasters. Emergency response teams are now using technologies including drones, satellite imagery, social media, and robotics to aid their response to unfolding disasters while modern buildings are now outfitted with advanced fire and smoke detectors (Bryner et al., 2015) Additionally, firefighters are equipped with durable protective equipment and go through comprehensive training to increase their success while fighting a fire. Despite these improvements, firefighting remains one of the deadliest jobs in the world.
The area in which firefighters carry out their operations, known as a fireground, is a dangerous and constantly changing environment. Currently, operational decisions at a fireground are made by an Incident Commander (IC). The IC is typically a senior member of the crew that makes decisions about tactics and resource management primarily based on their past experiences and instinct. Decision making on the fireground is limited by the collection of available data. Real-time data about the building, fire, and firefighters would help ICs make better-informed decisions. A strategy to improve the IC’s decision making would be to increase the available information by collecting and integrating information from a wide range of databases and sensor networks, both within and beyond the fireground. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the addition of “Smart” technologies to firefighting would “enable (considerably) better situational awareness, predictive models and decision making.”There is a clear need for a “Smart” system to facilitate and improve the way fire situations are currently addressed.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Firefighting is one of the most dangerous professions due to its unsafe and constantly changing environment. Firefighters may be required to operate under conditions with a high level of uncertainty and must make time-critical decisions using insufficient information. Despite thorough preparation, firefighters continue to face challenges while operating in structural fires. These challenges are the result of uncertainties of structural integrity, unpredictability of fatal events such as flashovers and backdrafts, and getting disoriented or lost when entering buildings with unknown layouts.
The firefighting occupation has a long history of dangerous situations. There has been numerous and devastating human losses because of lack in technological advancements. In daily life, fire hazards have become more common and it becomes the responsibility of fire fighters to overcome any difficulties and extinguish fires protecting the human life and other possible losses. But they are often exposed to higher risks while performing fire extinguishing operations, especially in hazardous environments such as in nuclear power plants and petroleum refineries. Therefore, there is a need for development of a robotic fire fighter that will be capable of detecting and extinguishing fire in a fire outbreak area.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this project is to develop a Robotic Fire Fighter.
The objectives are, to:
- Design a robust power supply circuit that will be able to supply 12V and 5V at the same time taking voltage from the same DC source;
- Design a circuit for the subunit of the system which are the sensing unit, controlling unit and the output unit;
- Integrate all the subunit circuit together and simulate it;
- Fabricate the designed circuitry in (I) and (II) above;
- Combine all the subunit of the system together and test;
- Connect the system to a mobile phone and test it.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The general scope of this study was to introduce a timely technological firefighting robot for reducing the risk of flame disaster.
The study was conducted three months ago with a vision to integrate a new method of reducing the risk of disaster using this microcontroller unit based. The circuitry design of the firefighting robotic system equipped with sensitive flame sensors, avoidance mechanism, smart phone (Bluetooth) control capability was made to ensure the functionality of the robotic system. This work is limited only to develop, design and fabricate fire fighting robotic system using prototype to extinguish small fire only.
1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The system doesn’t allow SMS capability, where SMS could be sent to the admin about where there is fire outbreak. Also, computer codes are made to address the specific demand of the robotic system. Only water is utilized in fire extinguishing. It is noted that this miniature work is intended only to extinguish small fire only. Huge fire source extinguishing is beyond the scope of this work. Likewise, the position of the water supply is fixed in a certain angle only. Height is also considered in extinguishing fire utilizing this miniature fire fighting robotic system. Furthermore, optimization of the fabricated fire fighting robotic system is beyond the scope of this study.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study promotes a new idea of reducing flame disaster. The world has a new way to extinguish flame through innovating robotic system that will autonomously control and extinguish fire. It is potentially useful for future studies in developing an advanced and cutting edge robot which has benefits in mitigating flame and becomes equipped with the destruction of flame. All because of its unique features, the house and owner will be moresecured. Therefore, this is a helpful contribution to mankind considering its help in reducing disaster risk. Thealarm system installed will notify the authority or the owner that resulting to the decrease the number of fires in the country.
1.7 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to the study. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective, limitation and scope of the study were discussed.
Chapter two is on Literature review of this study. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on Design Methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on Result and Discussion. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
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Full Project – Development of a robotic fire fighter