Full Project – Design and construction of electric water heater

Full Project – Design and construction of electric water heater

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The subject of automatic controls is enormous, covering the control of  variables such as temperature, pressure, flow, level, voltage, speed, etc. Water heating is part of energy utilization and is a process that is as old as man, with the mode of heating water changing from the use of sun to the modern day electricity. That is why overtime people have heated water in many ways. Even as recently as the turn of the century, running hot water was a luxury. It was available only to those who were well-off. In Nigeria today, a personal supply of hot water is thought of as a necessity, which is as important as food and shelter. Because of the importance of hot water to mankind, water-heating units are therefore indispensable and are found in homes, offices, factories, cafeterias, manufacturing processes, laundries, etc. In addition, heating elements are often   the   cause   of   many   electrical   fire outbreaks due to negligence. Hence there is a need to automate heating processes. In this paper, a simple automatic water-heating unit was designed and constructed. The unit is a simple system which could be used for various heating processes at home, offices, etc. The system is an automatic temperature switch that controls a powerful heater in a hot water storage vessel. It has two-fixed temperature settings, one to switch the water heater ON and another to switch it OFF.

The Water Level Controller System is an Electronic Equipment which when electrically connected to the starter of any given pump -set motor will control the operation of the pump- set depending upon the water level in the Source and Destination Storage Tanks. It Switches ON the Pump-set when Water level drops below pre-set level in Overhead Tank, Switches OFF the Pump-set when Water level in Overhead Tank becomes full ,Switches OFF the Pump-set when Water level is low in tank , and Switches ON the Pump-set when there is sufficient water in the tank.

Automatic water level controller circuit is a engineering project. It can automatically switch ON and OFF the domestic water pump set depending on the tank water level. You can implement this motor driver circuit at your home or college using less costly components. The main advantage of this water level controller circuit is that it automatically controls the water pump without any user interaction.

The automatic pump controller eliminates the need for any manual switching of pumps installed for the purpose of pumping water from a reservoir to an overhead tank. It automatically switches on the pump when the water level in the tank falls below a certain low level, provided the water level in the reservoir is above a certain level. Subsequently, as the water level in the tank rises to an upper level (M), the pump switched off automatically. The pump is turned on again only when the water level again falls below level in the tank, provided the level in the reservoir is above R. This automated action continues.



The objective this work is constructing a device that will control the flow and pumping of water in the overhead tank and at the same time heating the water in the heater container.

The initiative and effort behind this project research is to achieve the following major objectives

  • Feel water before bathing or show
  • To reduce the risk of scalding, install Thermostatic Mixing Valves (temperature limiting valves) at each point-of-use.



The significant of electrical water heater are as follows:

  • Suitability: These water level controllers are ideally suited for normal water as well as for ultra low conductivity water with less than 1 micro/ohm.
  • Easy to Operate: these systems come fitted with sensitivity setting which can be provided externally on a dial or with internal settings.
  • Settings: It is equipped with technology which works on low or high sensitivity settings on the same machine and thereby saves costs of buying and using two different machines.
  • Materials of Construction: this water control system is protected the against corrosion.
  • Safety: This system is highly insulated, leakage proof and works without creating any noise.
  • Save roofs
  • Save water
  • Save electricity



The issues that this project research seeks to address can be presented in a concise manner.

  • Burned out upper heating element (Dry Fired)
  • Energy Cut Off Switch tripped
  • Low supply voltage Malfunctioning lower heating element
  • The operating or auxiliary high temperature limit thermostat(s) are incorrectly
  • The thermostat(s) are not correctly sensing the water temperature.
  • Check the water temperature with a temperature gauge that is known to be correct. Check and replace any thermostats that are found to be incorrectly sensing the water temperature
  • Check for “blown” circuit fuses (fuses normally blow when a heating element has gone bad).
  • Replace the fuse and/or the heating
  • Electric power supply has been disrupted
  • Check the leads and circuit into which the unit has been wired for damage or
  • A heating element has shorted and is no longer functioning Replace the heating element
  • The solid state step controller or thermistor (probe) is malfunctioning Check and replace the step controller (or internal boards) and thermistor if found to be defective
  • Locate the high temperature limit thermostat–there reset button is located outside the electric control



This water controller will give you a heads-up the instant over-head tank and underground tank is full or goes below the required level, hopefully giving you time to close windows and bring in possessions. The circuit draws virtually no current when the sensors are dry and the current consumption is low when the buzzer is activated. Alternately, a molded power supply with a simple voltage regulator to drop the voltage to 3 volts could be used. When the circuit is triggered, the buzzer is pulsed about once per second for a very short time.



Sensors used are built with conductive material, which means that they are subject to rusting or corrosion. When rusting occur the sensors will stop conducting thereby causing this device will stop working.

Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC) will automatically START the pump set as soon as the water level falls below the predetermined level (usually kept half or 2/3rd tank) and shall SWITCH OFF the pump set as soon as tank is full or water level in the lower tank is at below minimum level.

This system provides you the flexibility to decide for yourself the water levels for operations of pump set in upper/lower tanks.

Built in Indications for showing Full, Empty Levels in Upper Tank and Lower Tank Empty Indication.

Manual operation switch for special operations like watering the plants from pump set.

The system ensures no overflows or dry running of pump there by saves electricity and water.

Consume very little energy, ideal for continuous operation.



The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:

Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to Water level controller. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of Water level controller were discussed.

Chapter two is on literature review of Water level controller. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.

Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.

Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.

Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.



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Full Project – Design and construction of electric water heater