Full Project – Bridge overloading and traffic control system
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Traffic jams have become a familiar sight for many drivers travelling to work in the morning or going for a trip on the weekend. As car ownership rates and traffic volume have steadily increased over the last decades, existing road infrastructure today is often strained nearly to its limits. Continuous expansion of this infrastructure, however, is not possible or even desirable due to special, economical and environmental reasons. It is therefore of paramount importance to try to optimize the flow of traffic in a given infrastructure.
However, the inputs to this optimization problem can be arbitrarily complex: to find an optimal solution, it would be necessary to know the position, speed and route of every vehicle in the system. Furthermore, all reactions of drivers to changing traffic conditions would need to be known and taken into account. In reality, traffic light controllers need to work with far less information about the current traffic situation. In most cities around the world today, the only sensors available are inductive loop detectors, which are embedded in the roads and count the number of cars passing over them.
The difficulty of controlling traffic lights optimally, along with the importance of the problem, have led to a great number of research approaches. This makes it quite surprising that the systems used today often date back some 20 or 30 years. Simple controllers still perform quite well as opposed to more sophisticated methods, as the latter are in many cases not able to deal with more than a handful of intersections at the same time.
The traffic control problem is difficult for a variety of reasons, with its sheer size being the prime reason. Many variables influence the performance of a network even when the signaling policy is fixed. Factors that come into play, for example, are irregular and unpredictable incidents like pedestrians, accidents or illegal parking, and the weather. Driver characteristics are a further source of variance, as they influence the choice of routes as well as driving behaviour like speed and distance keeping. Various surveys have indicated that highway bridges are subjected to vehicular load levels and combinations far in excess of those for which they were designed. Every day thousands of bridges help millions of commuters travel across water and other terrain. Although most people may take bridges for granted, they are complicated structures that must be designed and constructed to withstand millions of pounds of weight. Cars, trucks, motorcycles, buses and other vehicles travel across bridges at the same time and they must be safe and secure every moment of every day. If they are unsafe, bridges can collapse and have the potential to injure or kill innocent, unsuspecting travelers.
The traffic overload control system’s knowledge is based on fuzzy logic use. Fuzzy logic decision rules are applied to adjust the signal control parameters at each entrance of the bridge. Sensors are positioned at all access roads to the bridge. Each time a car reaches the sensor point, the sensor is triggered and it takes record of the vehicles weight, the system always checks the total weight of vehicles on the bridge and compares it to the maximum capacity of vehicles allowed on the bridge, if total weight of load on the bridge will exceed the maximum capacity of load allowed on the bridge, the system triggers the traffic at the sensor point to stop more vehicles from coming on the highway bridge and give right of way only after vehicles have descended the bridge.
Automated Bridge Overloading Control System describes a new approach using active management and control of road bridges. By measuring real-time traffic and load flow on the bridge, the system can restrict load violations caused by overloaded trucks and those violating the bridge formula from damaging the bridge.
This intelligent system controls weight overloading on bridges by assessing weight of vehicles ascending the bridge, taking note of vehicles on the bridge and comparing to make sure maximum capacity of bridge is not exceeded. In the Proposed System, each lane has two sensors embedded at the entry and exit of the bridge respectively- the entry sensor detects the weight of cars coming into the bridge while the exit sensor senses weight of vehicles leaving the bridge accurately, making sure maximum bridge capacity is not reached and exceeded at any point in time.
This project work would be divided into five chapters aimed at providing a detailed review of the methodology, approach and implementation processes of the proposed website. The chapters are further discussed below:
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The present system of traffic simulation which is the manual system a lot of the problems which are mentioned below:
- Going by the present system of operation time is consumed in the manual handling of operation involved in road traffic
- Cost this is the greatest problem of the federal road safety commission, the commission tend to lose a lot of money running the agency manually on how traffic work.
- Most driving schools are finding it difficult to explain more on how traffic work.
- Lack of understanding the rules and regulation guiding the road traffic
1.3 SIGNIFCANCE OF THE STUDY
- The proposed system will help in reducing the traffic jams on the bridge
- To help the road users in overcoming the problem of road accident
- The purposed system will help to prevent inconsistency and improve road-integrity.
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
Highlighted below are the aims and objectives of the automated bridge overloading control system in order to:
- Reduce traffic jams.
- Avoid overloading of highway bridges.
- To impact on the travel time
- Towards safer and more effective transport system.
- The proposed system is expected to assist in addressing the problems in the following areas:
- Deterioration of provincial road networks and safety aspects
- High maintenance costs of roads and highway bridges
- Congested and deteriorated road leads to loss of life and property.
- Inadequate vehicles maintenance, drivers fatigue and poor driver’s health will not be aggregated.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The work on completion is expected to:
- Prevent road accidents and other hazards
- Avoid bridge collapse due to overload
- To reduce capacity of intersection in order to enhance safety.
This work is limited to the proposed control and detection of fault due to overweight/ overload of bridges.
Taking into consideration major bridges in urban areas like Abuja, lagos and ado.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
A literature review will be carried out on past implementation of Automated Bridge Overloading Control System. During the cause of this project the development of optimal control structures for urban traffic on bridges by an intelligent and co-operative set up of actuators and sensors. This is linked to a central control system based on Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) which is most vital for avoiding bridge collapse, traffic jams and accidents. Sensors are introduced to detect approaching vehicle weight, compare maximum load allowed on the bridge and then control the traffic to monitor inflow of vehicles. The development of this intelligent control structure ensures an optimal solution for all participants in the transportation and road traffic system.
1.7 DEFINITION OF SOME TERMS
bridgeoverloadng system: irds monitoring and safety system
Vital role by monitoring bridge loading especially for bridge that are under a load restriction due to distress. Aging bridge create safety
Concern for department and agencies responsible for jurisdiction do not have the resource of funding to replace every structurally difficult bridge it is imperative that thus bridge be preserved and derived module setting
INFORMATION: this is the assembling of data into a meaningful form.
DATA: this is afore runner of information. It is an unprocessed fact.
DATABASE: is a collection of information that is related to a particular subject or purpose.
TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM: mean road traffic control involve directly reticular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone accident or order road distraction thus ensuring the safety of emergency response team construction workers and general public
HOW DOES A TRAFFIC LIGTH WORK
These detection are buried in or under the roadway inductive detector loop are the most common type. The are sensor buried in the road to detect the presence of traffic waiting of the light and thus can reduce the time when a green signal is given to an emty road.
FRSC: Federal Road Safety Commission is body responsible for the control of Road users in a country (Nigeria).
System: a set of integrated, interacting component with a common goal. Thus the integrated interaction of human ware, software and computer hardware constitute a system
TRAFFIC LIGHT: a road signal for directing vehicle traffic by means of colored light, typically red for stop, green for go and yellow for proceed with caution also called stoplight, traffic signal.
2D GRAPHIC: 2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images mostly from two dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them. The word may stand for the branch of computer science that comprises such techniques, or for the models themselves.
- Chapter one (Introduction): will give the overview of the proposed system under implementation.
- Chapter two (Literature review): there would be a detailed overview of the proposed system and the various advantages and disadvantages of the e-government website would be discussed.
- Chapter three (m): will discuss how the proposed system will be implemented. This chapter starts by taking a brief look at similar existing system, the working operations and how it is different from the existing system, the continues by giving an overview of the proposed system, describing the working operations, analysis of it and the design.
- Chapter four (): takes a broad look at the working operations of the application, the chapter exposes it to real life scenarios to confirm the performance, errors. It starts by taking a look at the hardware and software requirement for installation and it process of installation itself. • Chapter five (Conclusion and Recommendation): will discuss the general conclusion and based on that, recommendations will be suggested.
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Full Project – Bridge overloading and traffic control system