Full Project – Design and construction of a prototype home automation using bluetooth interface
Automation can simply be explained as the use of control systems and information technologies to operate apparatus or system by mechanical or electronic devices in order to reduce the need for human effort in the production of goods and services.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Automation systems are being preferred over manual systems due to the comfort and convenience it provide. Automation system can be controlled by sending commands to its microcontroller through Bluetooth, GSM, touching, voice recognition or over the internet.
Home automation also referred to as smart home is the control of any, some or all electrical devices or appliances that has been networked in the house. Home automation is one of the most exciting developments in technology for home that has come along in decades. There are hundreds of products available today that allow us control over the devices automatically either by remote control or by voice command. Home automation may includes centralized control of lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, appliances, security locks of gates and door, and other systems to provide improved convenience, comfort, energy efficiency, safety and security.
The home automation concept has existed for many years but due to advancement of wireless technology, the concept has witness a rapid growth. Other technologies that have contributed to the growth of home automation include: relay device, transistor as a switch, affordable microcontroller and so on. A new home is outfitted for home automation during construction due to the accessibility of the walls, outlets and storage rooms and the ability to make design changes specifically to accommodate certain technologies. Wireless systems are commonly installed when outfitting a pre-existing house to reduce wiring changes (Inderpreet, 2010). These wireless systems communicate through existing wiring or infrared signal with a central controller. Home automation can increase the quality of life for disabled people and the less privileged that might require caregiver or institutional care.Example of home automation using wireless system [Bluetooth] is the work of (Sriskanthan, Tan, &Karande, 2002) shows the implementation of a home automation system using Bluetooth. They use a host controller implemented on a PC, which is connected to a microcontroller based sensor and device controllers. The device controller is connected to electronic devices through t h e I2C Bus. The system allows more than one device controller to be connected to the host controller.
Similarly, the work of authors in (Kanma, Wakabayashi, Kanazawa, & Ito, 2003) also proposes a home automation system using Bluetooth that can be accessed remotely through GPRS. The researchers use a cellphone equipped with Bluetooth connectivity as a host controller and a GSM modem that provides Internet connectivity. Home devices are fitted with Bluetooth communication adapters so that they can communicate with the host controller phone via Bluetooth. This paper discusses remotely controlling and updating home devices along with fault diagnostics and detection. The work also talks about providing an electronics user manual on the phone using Bluetooth and Internet.
Manually control of home appliances has some problems associated with it which may be dangerous when it occurs. There are numerous problem associated with manual control of home automation, however, some of the most common problems are:
- Bad switch: there are some instances whereby the switches used to manually control the appliances are bad which result in the switch not performing it job i.e. the switch is physically switched OFF but electrically switched ON. This problem can have effect on either the appliances of the user. The effect could be electric shock, damaging the appliances etc.
- Safety of the home: due to power failure, a user might forget to off some appliances which will ON automatically when electricity is back. If for example a hot-plate, iron or boiling ring is the appliance, the effect could be drastic.
The design of a home automation system will help eliminate these problems. It will also help to make control of appliances comfortable.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objectives of this project are:
- To design a prototype house using ply wood
- To electrically network the wiring of the prototype house to a controller
- To design a security light to come ON at night and OFF at daytime
- To control the appliances in the house from a mobile (Bluetooth) device.
- To design and construct a Bluetooth home automation system using a microcontroller with Bluetooth interface.
1.4 CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
- Understanding the principle of operation of a Bluetooth module
- Understanding the principle of operation of microcontroller
1.5 LIMITATION/SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The scope of this project is to design a prototype home automation system in which the home appliances will be controlled wirelessly via Bluetooth technology. The prototype house contains a bedroom, sitting room, kitchen, dining room and rest room. The light in each of the rooms in the prototype house can be turned ON/OFF; similarly, the door to the sitting room can be opened as well as the main gate. The system will also include a security light that automatically turns ON at night and OFF during daylight. The controlling device has a Bluetooth app that sends a special command to Bluetooth enabled receiver, which in turn control the appliances.
The limitation of this project is mainly power supply. The Bluetooth automation can’t function if there is no electricity to power the appliances which is to be controlled by the mobile device (android phone) which is the control Device and also one can’t use the home automation function if the mobile device isn’t on or in the house with the range the Bluetooth can cover.
The project would be carried out by
- purchasing the needed materials for construction of the project
- The project is the design and construction of a prototype of a full home automation using Gsm Bluetooth interface
- the microcontroller is connected to a battery which serves it and an automatic security light
- the microcontroller is then connected to other part of the house ( main door, sitting room , kitchen light, dinning room light , bedroom light and toilet)
- the android phone is then connected to the Bluetooth through an app on the phone with the aid of the Bluetooth and all controlled through the app
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERM
- Arduino is an open source electronics platform that is easy and simple to use. The Arduino board has sets of digital and analog input/output pins that may be used to link other circuits. The board can be programmed by using Arduino programming language and Arduino software (IDE) where the program is written
- LM7805 is a 5V voltage regulator used for this project and it belongs to a member of the LM78xx family of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. A voltage regulator is designed to generate a fixed output voltage regardless of the change in input voltage or load
- ATmega328P is a microcontroller. The ATmega328P can be programmed using Arduino Uno. ATmega328P cannot take voltage higher than 5V therefore it requires the voltage to be stepped down (regulated) to 5V.
- A servo motor is used to represent the door of the home automation. The door is attached to the arm of the servo motor. The servo motor can move from 0 degree to 180 degree, while some can move up to 360 degree. However, the door is only required to open by 90 degree.
- LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) is a sensor that detects light and dark. The value of the LDR changes when the quantity of light falling on it changes. The resistance varies from 5k ohms in brightness to about 1M ohms in total darkness.
- Android phone: an android is a mobile operating system developed by google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software. It is primarily designed for touch screen mobile devices such as Smart phones and tablets. Internal hardware of android phones such as accelerometer, gyroscopes, proximity sensors, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and so on. Although other types of phones also have Bluetooth, android phone is commonly used because developers have easy access to develop application of different types. Android applications are easily accessible to download for android user on Google play store.
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Full Project – Design and construction of a prototype home automation using bluetooth interface