Full Project – Design and construction of 2kva stabilizer with current and voltage display
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Automatic voltage stabilizer is a wonderful invention of science, which is an electric device designed to regulate a constant voltage in a settable level. The main working of a stabilizer depends upon the laws of electromechanical physics.
There are many functions of an automatic voltage stabilizer. Automatic voltage stabilizer can be used with lot of electric appliances for various reasons. The basic functions of the automatic voltage stabilizer are:
First and foremost, it is used as a rectifier and as a potential divider. Rectifier is also an electric device used to convert the alternate current (A.C) to direct current (D.C) for further electric processing. Most of the electric appliances require a direct current for their working and can’t work on alternate current. Regarding potential dividers, they are electric devices used for the break out of input voltage to bring it to a desired output voltage as per the requirements.
There are many appliances in our homes which need stable electric power for their running and there might be some damage to the whole electric appliance if there comes any variation in the input current and voltage. Sometimes this may be fatal also but electricity is a very merciless killer. To avoid any mishap to the electric appliances and to us also, which may arise due to any variation in the voltage or current supply, a voltage stabilizer is essential to be used a complement to other electric devices.
AC Automatic voltage stabilizer can also be used in amplifiers. Amplifiers are other electric devices that compare the sensing voltages to the reference voltages and help to amplify the effect. You might have seen amplifiers attached to your home sound systems which boost up the sound effects. The actual sound quantity will be lower but if the same input is given to an amplifier, the resultant sound quality and quantity just increases to multiples of the input waves. The basic running procedure in them is the difference of provided voltages. AC Automatic voltage stabilizer help in maintaining a desired voltage for the generators within specified limits. Thus automatic voltage stabilizer is also the important part for our amplifier to work.
The previous analog types of automatic voltage stabilizer are now replaced by digital stabilizer. These types of automatic voltage stabilizer are higher in functionality and performance. They are equipped with self functioning controls and start up functions which make them very useful and easy to handle. Digital converters increase their precision levels. Simplified operating switches make them very precise than human handlings. If any fault occurs in the functioning of the automatic voltage stabilizer, self diagnostics technique detects the fault in no time. This leads to more security of the function. The maintenance tool helps in maintaining an online monitor. Reduced number of parts and wiring in these typically modern automatic voltage stabilizers make them more reliable. Automatic changes are easily dealt with the help of full duplex control systems.
The “Neo-Power” voltage stabilizer has different sizes. There are automatic voltage stabilizers which are so small that they can be easily placed on a small printed circuit board. They are portable and easy to handle. Some automatic voltage stabilizers are very gigantic in size. They may cover a volume of a small house sometimes. Thus there is a tremendous variety in the automatic voltage stabilizer and each has its own specifications. The variation of stabilizer can be judged by the names of automatic voltage stabilizer. Each name indicates its specific functioning and differences from others and there are more than fifty names to an automatic voltage stabilizer. Regarding the prices of automatic voltage stabilizer, it goes the natural way. If you will buy a smarter one, it will cost you more and you will buy an older model with normal functioning, it will cost you less. But keep in mind that whether an AC automatic voltage stabilizer costs less or high, it becomes irrelevant when it comes to the importance of a stabilizer in our daily lives.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Automatic voltage regulator is a voltage regulator planned to mechanically sustain a constant voltage level. It is very device to maintain a constant voltage level. It can also use electromechanical components. It can be used majorly to regulate one or more DC or AC depending on the design. Therefore, the functions of this equipment are very wide and can be used majorly for various purposes. Electronic voltage regulators can be used majorly for various purposes. It has various functions like it can be used mainly for stabilizing the DC voltages that can be used by the processor and its main parts. In central power station generator plants and automobile alternators, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In this distribution system, it may be installed at along distribution lines so that all clients recognize steady voltage self-regulating of how much power is drawn from the line. There are many functions of operating the AC depending upon the design. It is very good option to maintain the constant voltage level. Automatic voltage regulator is a superb invention of science, which is an electric device designed to authorize a constant voltage in a settable level. It is very helpful to maintain the preferred voltage for the generators within particular limits. The main working of it depends upon the laws of electromechanical physics. It consists of numerous vigorous and unreceptive electrical parts like thermostats, adopters and diodes. Apart from this, there are many reliable Automotive Suppliers in India that produce many kinds of equipments like generator, regulator and other major parts. They are well known for various kinds of functions and various specifications. They not only produce higher quality products, but also they will provide some additional benefits with the parts of these equipments. Auto Voltage Regulator Generator is the most important part for great amplifier to work. Its types are many, but they are highly in functionality and better performance. They are well equipped with self functioning controls and starts up functions which make them very easy and useful to handle easily and completely. They have different sizes, shapes and colors. There are also automatic regulators which are so small that they can be easily places on a small printed circuit board. They are very easy and portable to handle. They may cover a higher volume of small house sometimes. Therefore, there is a wide variety in the automatic voltage regulators and each has its own specifications.
This provide a solution to under voltage and over situation faced by residents of high density areas of Nigeria by designing and constructing an effective and comparatively cheaper voltage stabilizer which will have a cost price of less than total cost obtained which could be afforded by most low income earners. This is cheaper than the ready-made of factory assembled voltage stabilizer of the same rating which goes for between.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The design and construction of an Automatic Voltage Stabilizer is the project we are constructing. We are working on this machine because we have some idea on how this machine can be constructed and also on how it works. We are also doing this because we want to learn more about it.
As we have mentioned earlier, this device is a protective device that protects our electrical and electronic appliances out of current and voltage fluctuation. This is how it works. When this system is plugged into the socket or supply, it will receive a minimum voltage of 100v and filter the current and voltage thereby brings out suitable voltage output to be used by the devices in it. So, we are building or constructing this device to reduce risk and damages the fluctuation of current/voltage caused by power fluctuations.
1.4 CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
The system design shall be capable of operating at an input frequency range of -15% to +10% of nominal, without clearing protective devices or causing component failure within the automatic voltage stabilizer. When generator or utility power is restored, the AVS shall automatically restart. Upon turn on or restart, the output of the AVS shall not exceed the specified output regulation limits.
If the input voltage or frequency exceeds programmable minimum or maximum set points for a programmable time period (factory set for 10 seconds), the AVS shall electronically shut off. When electrical parameters are back within acceptable limits for a programmable time period (factory set for 60 seconds), the AVS shall automatically restart to provide conditioned power to the load. If the input parameters are within acceptable limits, but the output voltage is outside of acceptable programmed limits, the AVS shall electronically shut off and require a manual restart.
The AVS shall be capable of operating at 100% rated load capacity continuously, 200% rated load for 10 seconds, 500% rated load for 1 second and 1000% rated load for 1 cycle. Operating efficiency shall be a minimum of 96%, typical at full load.
Transformer winding shall be continuous copper with electrostatic tripled shielding and K-13 rated for the purpose of handling harmonic currents.
- Response Time: The AVS shall respond to any line voltage variation in 1/2 cycle while operating linear or non-linear loads, with a load power factor of 0.60 of unity. Peak detection of the voltage sine wave shall not be permitted to avoid inaccurate tap switching due to input voltage distortion.
- Operating Frequency: The AVS shall be capable of operating at +10% to -15% of the nominal frequency, 50Hz or 60Hz.
- Rating: this device shall be rated at 2.5kVA.
- Access Requirements: The AVS shall have removable panels on the front, rear and sides as required for ease of maintenance and/or repair.
- Metering: An input meter is provided to display line voltages
- Ventilation: The AVS isolation transformer shall be designed for convection cooling. If fan cooling is required for the solid state electronic switching devices.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
This project the design and construction of 2kva stabilizer with current and voltage display. The system design shall be capable of operating at an input frequency range of -15% to +10% of nominal, without clearing protective devices or causing component failure within the automatic voltage stabilizer.
Further, the approach presented in this paper can be extended to many other applications where there is scope for similar kind of energy conservation, but this study is limited to 2kva stabilizer only.
A voltage stabilizer like any other piece of equipment is a combination of many electrical and like any other piece of equipment is a combination of many electrical and electronic and circuit with the aim of getting the assemble to perform a specified desired task or function.
Therefore a voltage stabilizer consist for two main basic unit
- The transformer unit
- The control circuit
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
HV: High Voltage. Any electricity supply in excess of 650volts. Primarily used for the transmission of electricity over long distances.
Kva: Kilo volt amps. A measurement of the electrical ‘pressure’ and ‘quantity’ to a building.
Loads: The equipment that is using the electricity supplied to a building.
Long power cut: Failure of the mains power external to your building, in excess of 30 minutes to 24 hours.
LV: Low Voltage. Electricity supply from 110volts to 650 volts.
Power cut: A failure of the mains electricity by factors outside of your premises.
Prime rating: the rating given to a generator when it is used in lieu of mains power at a varying load. There is normally an overload allowed at this rating of 10% above the prime rating for 1 hour in 12.
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Full Project – Design and construction of 2kva stabilizer with current and voltage display