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1.1 Background of the study

With the deplorable situation in education in Nigeria, majority members of the community must be deeply touched by the current gloomy future. The multidimensional crises in the Nigerian educational sector are very serious areas of the failures of government to the community in all ramifications. The crises emerged not due to lack of material and human resources, but primarily from how these resources have been managed or mismanaged at the detriment of the larger members of the community Hence, serious abuses, in the educational sector, by government bureaucrats and politicians have assumed some of the greatest crimes committed to humanity. Since the nature and dimension of the educational crises in Nigeria are deep rooted and as such cannot be immediately quantified, the issue leaves one to conclude with the aphorism that ‘the more you see, the less you understand’ on why the situation defies all solutions or strategies adopted. Public schools in Nigeria have degenerated beyond limits in terms of physical structures, infrastructure, and the commitment or quality of teachers as well as the concern of authorities in ensuring standard and achievement of objectives. Thus, conditions for teaching and learning in public schools have completely deteriorated or even collapsed beyond redemption. Public schools have turned out to be a big liability to the Nigeria educational system as they have been indeed transformed into conduit pipes through which bureaucrats and politicians have systematically siphoned public resources. The greatest tragedy is that government efforts in  the establishment of tertiary education are not enough in meeting the needs and aspirations of Nigerians. All these have invariably resulted in the quantitative and qualitative collapse of productive educational pursuits and achievements. Hence, the number of  students turned out yearly is ill prepared for higher education or productive challenges right from the primary to university levels. In other words, performance indicators at all levels of the Nigerian educational system have dwindled (Abbass and Babajo, 2003). When the Universal Primary Education (UPE) was launched in 1976, for example, there was no adequate plan to achieve the enshrined objectives in all respects and at all levels. These include the projected number of pupils/students, number of schools/classrooms needed, the number and quality of teachers required and other infrastructures and instructional materials. While the UPE was meant to be universal, free and compulsory, it practically did not become free, universal or compulsory, in spite of the government is public pronouncement and enormous expenditure appropriated. Not all these brought about positive results to the greater community members. Government’s insensitivity to education is, largely, responsible for the crises. The challenge, therefore, is that, there is the need to have a fundamental reform or shift in the bureaucratic and political behaviour in order to have focused, sincere and committed governance with a view to solving such educational crises finally. In the absence of such a fundamental reform, there should evolve determined community efforts designed to ameliorate the situation. Hence, spirited communities, within the confines of their operations should be inspired to address the foreseeable dangers in the interest of the community and to save education.

1.2 Statement of research problem

The roles communities play in the establishment  and management of education can not be over emphasized. More often than not, communities sustainingly intervene in the learning processes of the entire educational system in terms of financial contributions designed to support schools, teachers and students/pupils. Communities however, establish and fund schools for the general good. This aspect increasingly strengthens the communities’ capacity, sense of identity and purpose. The efficacy of community participation in education is potential in bringing members from all specifications and diversities together for the attainment of a common objective. In addition, community participation in education brings about stability amongst community members thereby throwing the entire environment to social, economic and political harmony with enhanced relationships Communities, through Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) or other institutions should not be undermined but encouraged and supported. They should always be directly engaged in education specifically designed to promote quality education accessible to all members; irrespective of social status. This is aimed at minimizing conflicts and designed to promote the value of education for all community members. International organizations may however be allowed to intervene periodically by supporting local institutions with ideas, finance and organization among others but not to develop into “parallel bureaucracies” (World Bank, 2005; 39). Community participation cannot be effective and efficient without mass mobilization. In addition, clear objectives of the nature and scope of mass mobilization must be outlined and understood by participating communities. However, there must be guaranteed stability, safety and security safeguards to protect and assure the mobilized communities of the dividend of participation. Condition of life for members of the community, particularly the teachers, should be continuously improved especially in capacity building that enhances labour mobility. The responsibility to own, provide and maintain education by community members must be guaranteed and sustained.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The primary objective of this study is as follows:

1.     To find out the strategy community use in participating in the establishment of schools.

2.     To find out reasons community participate in establishment of schools.

3.     To find out ways of improving participation of  communities in  the establishment of schools.

1.4 Research questions

The following questions have been prepared for this research:

1.     what are the strategy communities use in the establishment of schools?

2.     What are the reasons for  community participation in the establishment of schools?

3.     What are the ways of improving community participation in the establishment of schools?

1.5 Significance of the study

This study will lay emphasis on the assessment of the strategy for community participation in the establishment of tertiary institutions in Nigeria

The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, NGO, ministry of education, individuals, and academia

1.6 Scope of the study

This study intends to examine the strategy for community participation in the establishment of tertiary institutions in Nigeria  . Hence this study is delimited to lecturers, student and stake holders of Akure south local government area of Ondo state.

1.7 Limitations of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Financial constraint is inevitable considering the present economic situations. Due to lack of finance at the researchers disposal to get materials and in printing of questionnaires. it was not possible to visit some of the police stations and some of the victims of corruption.

In developing countries like Nigeria, there is the problem of insufficient data.

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

Operational definition of terms

Assessment: the action of assessing someone or something.

Strategy: a plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.

Community: a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.

Establishment:the action of establishing something or being established.

Tertiary institutions:  any Public or Private Institution, School or centre of Higher Education other than a University.

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