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This research was conducted on “Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Practices in Kokona Community Nasarawa State ward in the Nasarawa metropolis” aimed at assessing the nature and the methods used by the users of the area, which was first carried out through survey with the use of structured questionnaires to some persons chosen from the study area. The total population for the study is 200 residents in Kokona Community in the Nasarawa metropolis. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made civil servants, youths, married men and married women were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies




  • Background of the study

The increasing global population and rapid urbanization have led to a surge in the generation of solid waste. This has posed significant challenges to municipalities worldwide, particularly in developing countries where solid waste management systems are often inefficient and unsustainable. This background sets the stage for the study on solid waste management practices and determinants.

Solid waste management has become a global problem especially in developing countries of the world. One of the major factors that directly contribute to solid waste generation is urbanization and population growth. Solid wastes could be defined as non-liquid and nongaseous products of human activities, regarded as being useless (Babayemi and Dauda, 2009). It could take the forms of refuse, garbage and sludge (Leton and Omotosho, 2004). In developing countries such as Nigeria, open dumping of solid wastes into wetlands, watercourses, drains and burrow pit is a prevalent form of disposal. This practice has sometimes resulted in the littering of the surroundings, creates eyesore and odour nuisance (Ihuoma, 2012). Sangodoyin (1993) stated that open dumping of wastes serves as breeding place for flies, insects and rats. The proliferation of flies, insects and rats in the vicinity of a refuse dumpsite is due to the presence of putrescible components. The flies are capable of transmitting diseases through contact with food and water such as dysentery and diarrhea. The unsanitary mode of disposal of wastes, such as defecation in streams and the dumping of refuse in pits, rivers and drainage channels could be expected to affect surface and groundwater quality (Sangodoyin, 1991).

Hence, the management and control of wastes at all stages of production, collection, transportation, treatment and ultimate disposal is a relatively social imperative (Salami et al, 2011). Afon (2007) observed that, little documentation of the quantity and composition of wastes generated in different areas of African cities, are limiting the capacity to develop effective waste management systems. Kabir et al, 2003 narrated that waste generation occurs in virtually all human activities and that its management in society has been a challenge for as long as people have gathered together in sufficient numbers. Proper management of solid waste is critical to the health and well-being of urban residents (WorldBank, 2003). Nasarawa metropolis, like most cities in the developing world several tons of municipal solid waste is left uncollected on the streets each day, clogging drains, creating feeding ground for pests that spread diseases and creating myriad of related health and infrastructural problems. A substantial part of the urban residents in the old city have very little or no access to solid waste collection services. This is due to lack of proper land use planning which resulted in the creation of informal settlement with narrow streets that make it difficult for collection trucks to reach many areas. Nijiribeako lamented that the sheer magnitude of the solid waste problem in Nigeria is hard to comprehend. There are not enough public waste receptacles, and solid waste dumps are located in the side of the highway.

The management of solid waste involves a series of activities, including waste generation, segregation, collection, transportation, processing, and disposal. However, these practices vary widely across different regions due to a range of determinants such as socio-economic factors, policy and regulatory frameworks, and technological capabilities. This variability in practices and determinants forms the second background to this study.


The improper handling and disposal of solid waste can have severe environmental and public health impacts. These include air and water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and the spread of diseases. Therefore, understanding and improving solid waste management practices and identifying their determinants is crucial. This urgency and importance provide the third background to the study.


Without an effective and efficient solid-waste management program, the waste generated from various human activities, both industrial and domestic, can result in health hazards and have a negative impact on the environment. Understanding the waste generated, the availability of resources, and the environmental conditions of a particular society are important to developing an appropriate waste-management system (Tay-joo et al., 2007). Factors influencing household solid waste management include; lack of awareness, proper waste management equipment and facilities, laws and policies and low income to help improve solid waste management systems among the households (Issam et al., 2010). On this background the researcher wants to assess solid waste disposal practices in residential building


The objectives of the study covers;

  1. To determine the types of waste generated by households
  2. To assess solid waste handling methods at house hold level.
  3. To ascertain the effect of solid waste disposal to environment
  4. To ascertain the strategies and options available to deal with challenges of household solid waste management practices

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0there are no types of waste generated by households

H1: there are types of waste generated by households

H02:  there is no effect of solid waste disposal to environment

H2:  there is effect of solid waste disposal to environment




Solid waste management is a critical issue in Nigeria, a country with a rapidly growing population and urbanization. The significance of studying solid waste management practices and determinants in Nigeria cannot be overstated. The country’s waste management practices have a direct impact on the health and well-being of its citizens, the environment, and the economy.

The study of solid waste management practices in Nigeria is significant because it provides insights into the current state of waste management in the country. It reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the existing waste management system, the effectiveness of the policies in place, and the level of public awareness and participation in waste management. This information is crucial in identifying areas that need improvement and formulating strategies to enhance waste management in the country.

Furthermore, the study of determinants of solid waste management practices in Nigeria is equally important. Understanding the factors that influence waste management practices can help in designing interventions that are tailored to the specific needs and circumstances of different regions or communities in the country. These determinants could be socio-economic, cultural, political, or technological.

The significance of this study also extends to its potential contribution to environmental sustainability in Nigeria. Effective waste management practices can reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, and mitigate the impacts of climate change. This study can provide valuable information that can guide the development of sustainable waste management strategies in the country.

Additionally, the study can have significant implications for public health in Nigeria. Poor waste management practices can lead to the spread of diseases and other health hazards. By identifying and addressing the issues in the current waste management system, the study can contribute to improving public health in the country.

Lastly, the study of solid waste management practices and determinants in Nigeria can have economic implications. Effective waste management can create job opportunities, generate income, and contribute to the country’s economic growth. Therefore, this study can provide insights that can be used to harness the economic potential of waste management in Nigeria.


The scope of the study covers Solid waste management practice and determinant in Kokona Community Nasarawa State.  The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

SOLID WASTE: Solid waste means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, .

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD: An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people’s health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

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