The Impact of Naira Float on Inflation and Exchange Rate

The Impact of Naira Float on Inflation and Exchange Rate

Due to its variable exchange rate mechanism, the Naira, Nigeria’s national currency, has come under close economic examination. A system in which the value of a currency is permitted to vary in response to the processes of the foreign exchange market is known as a floating exchange rate or a flexible exchange rate. The stability of Nigeria’s economy is heavily influenced by inflation and the exchange rate, two key economic indicators that will be examined in this article.

The rate of inflation indicates how quickly the cost of living is increasing across the board, eroding consumers’ purchasing power. Inflation in Nigeria has been significantly affected by the floating of the Naira. The CBN floated the Naira in June 2016 in an effort to stem the country’s soaring inflation and restore economic stability. However, the outcomes have been inconsistent.

In theory, a floating exchange rate would be more effective at taming inflation than a fixed one since a weaker currency would make imported goods more expensive and boost domestic manufacturing. However, the devaluation of the Naira in Nigeria’s situation caused import prices to rise, which were then passed on to consumers and contributed to inflation. The high import dependence of Nigeria for essentials only made matters worse.

Because of the flexible exchange rate regime, the Naira’s value has also been considerably influenced. Since the float was put into effect, the value of the Naira has been determined by supply and demand. Since there was a shortage of foreign money, the Naira initially fell in value relative to other major currencies such as the US Dollar.

Over time, however, CBN interventions in the foreign currency market to stabilise the Naira have led to a regime that is reminiscent of a controlled float. These measures, together with rising oil income (Nigeria’s principal source of foreign cash), have contributed to a relative stability in the Naira exchange rate.

Both inflation and the exchange rate have been significantly affected by the Naira float. Inflation has risen as a result of the float because of higher import prices, although the exchange rate has been able to fluctuate in response to market forces. There is ongoing discussion among Nigeria’s economists and policymakers over the efficacy of the country’s floating exchange rate regime. However, it is evident that Nigeria must cut back on imports and boost local production for the system to operate properly. To lessen its reliance on oil exports for foreign currency, the government should diversify its economy.

What happened to inflation and the exchange rate when the Naira was allowed to float is a monument to the intricate relationship between government policies, market forces, and the economy as a whole. In an increasingly integrated global economy, this highlights the importance of prudent economic management and policy formation.


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The Impact of Naira Float on Inflation and Exchange Rate