PRINCIPAL’S LEADERSHIP STYLE AND TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA – A STUDY OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ADO ODO LGA, OGUN STATE
Background of the Study
Educational leaders play important role with the intension to make teaching and learning more effective and to give quality education to students. Most educational experts consider administrators as the driving force and main source of the organizational development and academic growth of students (Mirkamali, 1995). The successes of an administrator have been taught to be, due to the various methods that are used in their administration process. The administrator’s leadership style influences the efficiency and also the effectiveness of the organization and it is the function of other several inter-related factors like the employee’s level of psychological and social maturation at work and their main expectations (Alageheband, 1997). It is concerned with the running of the school system. Leadership style of a principal really depends on the leaders assumptions about human being, human nature and human learning. These assumptions consciously and unconsciously are the main foundation for decision making and choosing a leadership style (Bayst, 1998).
Principal’s leadership style is the particular way Principal and School leaders go about accomplishing the set objectives of the school. It encompasses the way they make decisions, how they plan and organize work, and how they exercise authority. According to (Dale and Beach, 1980), Leadership is the process of influencing people to act for the accomplishment of specified objectives while (Sheikh, 2001) described a leader as a person who motivates a group of people to achieve its tasks and maintain team unity throughout the process. Many people tends to believe that a leader implies one person dominating another person or a group of peoples‟ perfect leader unifies, embodies the opinion of the people to any desired goals. Leadership thus, is not only a personality trait, but the way a superior or leader relates with his followers. It is the quality of bringing together the people of diversified opinions together with those of similar opinions. Leadership is a key factor to improve the condition of any department and also the same in school aspects. Functional schools and outstanding performance do not exist without effective leadership style. The mode in which schools are spiritual beliefs, ideas and attitudes that make learning more connected, value driven and meaningful (Deal and Peterson, 1994).
Koontz and Weihrich (1998) define leadership as the art or process of influencing people so that they strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals. They add that people should be encouraged to develop not only willingness to work, but also, with zeal and confidence. Several studies have been done about leadership leading to many theories. Many theorists have speculated that the secret to leadership problems lies in the style of the leader, the nature of the task, and the situation plus his personality (Rono, 2002).
The concept of leadership is in the domain of the educational management. Adeyemi, (2004) described leadership as the process of influencing the activities of a group of people by a leader in efforts towards goal achievement in a given situation. This is the situation approach. It involves a force that initiates actions in people and the leader himself. It involves a guide that directs activities of individuals in a given direction in order to achieve the goals of the organization. It also involves a situation that gives opportunity for training individuals as leaders in such a way that the individuals could increase their efficiency and effectiveness in job performance. It is concerned with how to adapt leadership styles to a situation in any formal organization. The individuals are given titles according to their responsibilities e.g. a director, deputy director or assistant director and so on (Ibukun, 1997).
Different experts have identified different leadership styles have distinctive characteristics. For example (Avolio and Bass, 2002) presented full range leadership theory according to which three leadership styles known as transactional, transformational, laissez-fair were identified. Douglas (1996), Robbins and Caulter (1999) claimed that decisions by leaders depends on these three leadership styles which are democratic, autocratic and laissez-fair. A democratic style is characterized by co-ordination, co-operation and by collaboration. (Yulk, 2005), discovered that autocratic leadership style allows no participation inn decision and laissez-fair which is also known as free-rein leadership style empowers subordinate to work with freedom and free-will.
Societal demands for greater efficiency and accountability have also seen school heads beginning to display excellence in both management and daily administration of schools. Effective leadership is widely accepted as being a key constituent in achieving school improvement. A highly effective school head is not called to the job per se, but more importantly to the opportunity to make a difference in the school. This could mean a change in the educational landscape, heal an ailing school, or work for the concepts of greater accountability, equity and excellence. School heads have the responsibility to lead their schools to high achievement for all students. In the eyes of society, a successful and excellent school is most likely to be associated with an equally successful principal. We often hear talk about just how poorly the school performs if the principal is ineffective in his leadership. There have also been cases where a school excels under the administration of a particular principal but deteriorates under the administration of another; thus leaving one to believe that the two: the leadership behaviour of the principal, and the performance of the school are seemingly related to one another.
Whitaker (1997) opines that a key element of an effective school is an effective principal. Although school success is influenced by many people, the principal plays a pertinent role. Research into the leadership of excellent and successful schools has produced a number of pointers concerning leadership style and effective strategies. However, what is less clear is the extent to which these are different from, or the same as those adopted by leaders in other successful and excellent schools. Perhaps it is not so much the nature of their style or strategies that distinguishes effective leadership in these circumstances, but the leader’s ability to prioritize, establish a direction for the school, motivate staff and build capacity by developing staff and harnessing resources (Whitaker, 1997).
Society places high expectation on schools to produce knowledgeable, morally outstanding and highly-skilled citizens (Donaldson, 2006). In order to do so, principal are expected to lead the school effectively. In the realization of the nation’s aspirations, the principal are the public officers entrusted to lead the schools to enable them to function smoothly and more effectively. However, there are discrepancies in our school leadership.
School leadership weakness is not a new issue in school leadership research. Fullan (2001) exposed that there are weaknesses in the school leadership. There are principal who are not able to administer the school well resulting in the school not being able to function effectively. One of the major weaknesses is the bureaucratic leadership style of the principal which makes them vague about the role they have to play as leaders who have to generate the teacher’s commitment towards school.
Statement of the Problem
Common observation in the school system in Ogun State, Nigeria shows the different types of leadership used by principal’ of selected secondary schools. Some principal’ seem to be autocratic in their leadership style (Adeyemi, 2010). Some perhaps tends to be democratic (Akerele, 2007). Some on the other hand seem to practice the laissez faire leadership style (Ige, 2001). These leadership styles tend to have some effect on the management of the school either positively or negatively. The problem of this study therefore was to determine what relationship principal leadership style had on teachers’ performance in selected secondary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria.
Common observation in the school system shows that salaries and allowances of selected secondary schools teachers’ are not promptly paid as at when due by the State government. Eventually, when salaries are paid after much rigour, allowances such as leave bonuses are delayed for a couple of months. This situation tends to lower the morale of many teachers’ in the school system (Obilade, 1998).
In many occasions, teachers’ attributed the delay in the payment of salaries and allowances to their principal. The argument is that principal’ might not have been submitting their vouchers to government for processing in good time. Some of them perhaps, felt that the leadership style of many principal’ was at stake (Okeniyi, 1995). Many of them seem to feel that principal’ were not carrying them along in the submission of vouchers to government for the payment of their salaries and allowances. Thus, many teachers felt that the styles of leadership of their principal’ was questionable and had much to be desired.
Similarly, Mansor (2006), express concern as there are still many school heads who administer their schools based on the classic management model. They practice the autocratic leadership style with formal procedures, neglecting the teachers’ psychological needs, suppressing the teachers’ creativity, overly emphasing on academic achievement and putting aside their roles as leaders who have to generate quality human capital for the purpose of education development (Chan, 2004).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine the Principal’s leadership style and Teachers’ performance in secondary schools in Nigeria. The objectives of the study are stated below:
- To examine the significant relationship between teachers performance and autocratic leadership style of principal
- To examine the relationship between decision making process and the principal’s performance.
- To examine the relationship between democratic leadership style and staff welfare.
- To examine the relationship between staff development programme and the principal’s performance.
Based on the purpose of the study, the following questions are raised to provide a guide and solution to the research problems:
- Is there any significant relationship between Principal managerial leadership style and teachers job performance?
- Is there any significant relationship between decision making process and principal’s performance?
- Is there any significant relationship between democratic leadership style and staff welfare?
- Is there any significant relationship between staff development programme and the principal’s performance?
In carrying out this research work these hypothetical statements are made to serve as a direction on which the work will be premised.
- H0: There is no significant relationship between Principal managerial leadership style and teachers job performance.
- H0: There is no significant relationship between decision-making process and principal job performance.
- H0: There is no significant relationship between democratic leadership style and staff welfare.
Significance of the Study
The outcome of the study would aid leadership in formulating feasible policies that would be in the best interest of the schools.
At the corporate level, it is expected that the study would become an eye-opener and immensely add to the knowledge of leaders. The assessing of workers performance does not only enhances the methodology or efficiency of the organization, but also project the good image of the organization before the masses.
The finding of this study would also help to identify the problems within the teacher training policy and help to curb general neurosis that lighten tension for an effective performance between school management and teachers.
And again the study would enlighten students about the relationship that co-exist between leaders and workers in an organization which will prepare them for a better work environment.
Scope of Study
The work seeks to examine principal’s leadership style and teachers’ performance in secondary schools in Nigeria in Selected secondary schools in Ado Odo LGA in Ogun State with a view to explore five selected secondary schools in Ogun State. The research study is limited to the selected secondary schools. The research seeks to explore variables such as Principal leadership styles, responsibility, teachers’ performance etc.
Definition of Terms
- Teacher: A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults).
- Education: The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, esp. at a school or university: “a new system of public education”.
- Principal’s leadership style: This is the particular way Principal and School leadership go about accomplishing the set objectives. It encompasses the way they make decisions, how they plan and organize work, and how they exercise authority.
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PRINCIPAL’S LEADERSHIP STYLE AND TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA – A STUDY OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ADO ODO LGA, OGUN STATE