PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AMONG PREGNANT WOMAN – A Study of PHC Angwan Waje Keffi LGA
Background to the Study
Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic diseases. The virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids. In Nigeria, the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) is a significant public health concern.
According to a study conducted by Musa et al. (2015), the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among pregnant pregnant women in Nigeria was found to be 13.6%. This high prevalence rate is alarming, considering the risk of mother-to-child transmission. The study further revealed that the majority of the infected women were in the age group of 21-30 years, indicating a high risk of transmission to newborns.
Another study by Ugbebor et al. (2011) in Benin City, Nigeria, reported a Hepatitis B prevalence rate of 8.6% among pregnant women. The study also highlighted the lack of awareness and knowledge about Hepatitis B infection among the participants, suggesting the need for increased health education and vaccination programs.
In a more recent study by Ojide et al. (2015) in South-East Nigeria, the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women was found to be 4.8%. The study emphasized the importance of routine screening for Hepatitis B infection among pregnant pregnant women to prevent mother-to-child transmission.
However, a study by Pennap et al. (2011) in North Central Nigeria reported a lower prevalence rate of 2.2%. The study suggested that the lower prevalence might be due to the higher literacy level in the region, leading to better awareness and preventive practices against Hepatitis B infection.
Despite the varying prevalence rates, these studies collectively highlight the need for comprehensive strategies to reduce the prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant woman Nigeria. These strategies could include routine screening, vaccination, health education, and improved sanitation practices.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Hepatitis B infection is a significant public health concern worldwide, and Nigeria is no exception. The disease, which is primarily transmitted through blood and other body fluids, poses a significant risk to women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) due to the potential for mother-to-child transmission. Despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine, the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection remains high among this population, indicating a gap in the current prevention and control strategies.
The problem is further compounded by the fact that many women are unaware of their Hepatitis B status. This lack of awareness can lead to unintentional transmission of the virus to their newborns, contributing to the perpetuation of the disease cycle. Furthermore, the asymptomatic nature of chronic Hepatitis B infection means that many infected individuals remain undiagnosed until the disease has progressed to severe liver damage.
In Nigeria, the high prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women is a significant public health issue. The country has one of the highest rates of Hepatitis B infection in the world, with an estimated 10-15% of the general population infected. Among pregnant women, the prevalence is even higher, with studies reporting rates as high as 20%.
The high prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant woman Nigeria is a clear indication of the failure of current prevention and control measures. Despite the availability of a vaccine and the implementation of universal vaccination programs, the disease continues to spread at an alarming rate. This suggests that there are significant barriers to vaccination uptake and adherence, as well as gaps in the provision of antenatal care services.
The situation is further exacerbated by the lack of comprehensive and reliable data on the prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant woman Nigeria. Most studies on the subject are small-scale and region-specific, making it difficult to get a clear picture of the national situation. This lack of data hampers the development and implementation of effective prevention and control strategies.
The high prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant woman Nigeria is a significant public health problem that requires urgent attention. There is a need for comprehensive, nationwide studies to accurately determine the prevalence of the disease and identify the barriers to vaccination uptake and adherence. Only then can effective prevention and control strategies be developed and implemented.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to examines the prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant woman Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State. The specific objectives of the study are to:
- To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) in Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State.
- To identify the risk factors associated with Hepatitis B infection among women.
- To find out if the knowledge and awareness of Hepatitis B infection will reduce the effect on pregnant women in Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State.
- To evaluate the effectiveness of current preventive measures against Hepatitis B infection in the ANC setting.
1.4. Research Questions
The research questions are buttressed below:
- What is the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) in Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State?
- What are the risk factors associated with Hepatitis B infection among women?
- Will increased knowledge and awareness of Hepatitis B infection reduce its impact on women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) in Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State?
- How effective are the current preventive measures against Hepatitis B infection in the ANC setting?
1.5. Research Hypothesis
The hypothetical statement for the study is buttressed below:
Ho: Knowledge and awareness of Hepatitis B infection will not reduce the effect on pregnant women in Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State.
H1: Knowledge and awareness of Hepatitis B infection will reduce the effect on pregnant women in Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State.
1.6. Significance of the Study
The study of the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among women attending Antenatal Care (ANC) in Nigeria holds significant importance in several ways.
Firstly, it provides a comprehensive understanding of the current situation of Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women in Nigeria. This information is crucial for healthcare providers and policymakers to make informed decisions and strategies to combat this health issue.
Secondly, the study can contribute to the existing body of knowledge on Hepatitis B infection, particularly in the context of Nigeria. It can provide valuable insights into the specific factors contributing to the prevalence of this infection among pregnant women, which may differ from other populations or regions.
Thirdly, the findings of this study can be used to inform the development of targeted interventions and preventive measures. By understanding the prevalence and associated factors of Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women, healthcare providers can tailor their services to better meet the needs of this population.
Fourthly, the study can serve as a basis for future research. The data and insights gathered can be used to explore other aspects of Hepatitis B infection, such as its long-term effects on mothers and children, or the effectiveness of different treatment approaches.
Lastly, the study can raise awareness about Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women in Nigeria. By bringing attention to this issue, it can encourage more resources to be allocated towards Hepatitis B prevention and control, ultimately contributing to improved maternal and child health outcomes.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study examines the prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant woman Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State. The study is limited to selected pregnant women in Public health Care Angwan Waje, Keffi Nasarawa State.
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms
- Prevalence: This term refers to the total number of cases of a disease in a particular population at a specific time. It’s often used in epidemiology to measure the overall disease burden in a population.
- Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. It is a major global health problem and the most serious type of viral hepatitis. It can cause chronic liver disease and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.
- Infection: An infection is the invasion of an organism’s body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
- Women: Women are adult human females. In the context of this study, they are the specific demographic being examined for Hepatitis B infection.
- ANC: ANC stands for Antenatal Care. It is the care and support that a woman receives during pregnancy to ensure the health and well-being of her and her unborn child.
- Public health Care: PHC stands for Primary Health Care. It is a whole-of-society approach to health and well-being centered on the needs and preferences of individuals, families and communities. It addresses the broader determinants of health and focuses on comprehensive and interrelated aspects of physical, mental and social health and wellbeing. It provides care for people in their communities where they receive most of their care, from birth to the end of life. PHC is the first level of contact with the health system and ideally should be accessible, affordable, and comprehensive.
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PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AMONG PREGNANT WOMAN – A Study of PHC Angwan Waje Keffi LGA