Full Project – Training as a tool for employee productivity in an organization
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Training includes all attempts to improve productivity by increasing an employee’s ability to perform (Nickells, 2002). Therefore, training should be seen as a tool for enhancing employee’s productivity. This is as rightly put by Hunter and Hunter, that among the identified personal factors, research shows that ability test scores correlate better than any other factor with job performance (Ogunbameru, 2004). This suggests that human resource department of any organization should regularly assess and evaluate the training needs of their organization for effective and efficient achievement of short, medium and long term objectives and goals of the organization. This is because training makes an effective and efficient employee. Managers are therefore, advised to understand the correlation between training and employee productivity.
The history of training development was as old as the history of man on earth. It can be traced back to when people begin to achieve goals (targets) through group efforts in which those involved needs to be trained and developed for effective and efficient goal realization.
Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915), whose basic ideas led to increased productivity and efficiency recognized the importance of training in his principles of management, that the best man to do the job must be scientifically selected and trained.
As history evolved, various training techniques and methods were used in various periods depending on the dynamism of the business environment especially the technological environment. But then, there was no full time training of employees. Full scale training of civil servants began in many Western countries in the decades after World War II. The most important development was perhaps the findings in 1945 of the National School of Administration in Paris. Which serves as both professional school and recruitment agency for the French government’s administration and diplomatic services. Great Britain, India and other countries have developed their own civil servants. At the time, less-developed countries have unique problems of training, and therefore has to send their key personnel for training abroad.
Chandan (2007) asserts that, “In the past training was primarily oriented towards functional, cynical and specific job related skills, in today’s business and managerial environment, the training programmes stressed a broad range of group interaction, skills, cross-functional issues, quality issues and diagnostic problem solving skills.”
All the aforementioned trends in training techniques or methods are efforts towards making it (i.e. training) an effective instrument for increased productivity. Unfortunately however, there are still those who feel that systematic training is costly or beyond their capabilities, while some hinders the effectiveness of training through corruption, tribalism and undue favouritism. Yet, most managers know that a person such as a secretary who is skilled in his job is more efficient than an unskilled person Buntiny (1970).
The International Labour Office (2000) affirmed that there are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any organization, these factors include: capital, equipment, personnel etc. All these factors are important but the most significant factor is the human factor. Since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives.
Training aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization, it becomes imperative to develop the employee.
Training helps employees to improve their work performance in order to ensure the standard and quality of work required by the organization to achieve both organizational and individuals predetermined objectives.
In other words, the success of an organization depends on the ability and expertise of those who operate it both at the managerial and lower levels of operation, such abilities and expertise usually stems from the knowledge they possess and training received.
According to Harbison, F.H. (1973), human being constitutes the ultimate basis of a nation’s wealth. This proposition applies to the organization, which implies that with daily increase and complexity in the organizational activities and the problem ensuring optimum productivity which is fast becoming a challenge as well as imperative for the management of organization, thus, training of staff on whom the huge responsibility of furthering these goals rest, must take top priority if the organization must continue to enjoy maximum performance from the staff.
The main objective of setting up a company is to make profit and to achieve this organizational goal, adequate training programmes should be put in place to enhance performance. It is in view of this that the importance of understanding training as a tool for enhancing employee productivity becomes necessary and hence the research work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Most organization views cost of training as the main problems associated with training whereas productivity is very much important as this research work intends to show.
Also the duration of training is one of the problems associated with it, as training can take much time depending on what the person knows and what he is supposed to know. When managers or employers put into consideration such factors as these, training becomes a secondary thing for them.
Sometimes even with good training on ground, bedevilment of this generation such as corruption, tribalism and undue favouritism do comes in. In essence, all the above mentioned problems to a great extent hinder the effectiveness and efficiency of training and this affects organizational productivity adversely.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- How does in-service (on-the-job) training enhances employees’ productivity?
- To what extent is off-the-job training enhances employees’ productivity?
1.4 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
- To examine the how in-service (On-the- Job) training enhances employees’ productivity in an organization.
- To find out the extent to which off-the-job training improves employees’ productivity in an organization.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The main hypotheses in the research work are:
HI: On-the-Job training has positive effect on organizational effectiveness and efficiency and
Ho: On-Job Training has no positive effects on an organizational effectiveness and efficiency
H1: Off-the-Job training leads to enhance productivity of an organization.
Ho: Off-the-Job training does not lead to enhance productivity of an organization.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research undertaken covers mainly the facts of the entire training of staff that will result to the improvement or development of West African Seasoning Company (Ajino-Moto), Katsina Branch for the achievement of desired goals.
The scope of this research work is limited or restricted to West African Seasoning Company (Ajino-Moto), Katsina Branch.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study is to enhance productivity in the public organization, it will help for planning research output can be a basis for planning and in fact it provides institutions with adequate data for planning purpose.
The findings of this work will help any researcher who is conducting his/her investigation on the same or similar topic and this will guide him/her through his/her research work. Furthermore, library presentation; the research is intended to benefit both public and private organization in their training proposal.
1.8 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Impact: Impact is the process of determining the result whether negative or positive in a particular period of lime.
Training: is the process of acquiring knowledge or skill that you need to do a particular job within organization. Also it is a change a goal, i.e its purpose is to effect the change in knowledge, skill and attitude. Its oriented toward job requirement. Training encompasses those acts, events and episodes in which people engage to improve their performance in specific job related.
Development: As a type of social change in which new ideas arc introduced into social system to improve living condition of the people. In other words development is a dynamic process involving a series of changes that are the end products of efforts designed to raise the level of productivity of organization and ultimately improve the living standard of the population of the country.
Public organization: These are those business units and economic activities owned and managed by the state or government of a country. These business units owned by either the federal, state or local government are said to belong to public sector, and they include public cooperation’s and companies owned by the government.
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Full Project – Training as a tool for employee productivity in an organization