Full Project – The importance of family planning on child spacing
1.2 BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY
Family planning is the “International Prevention of Conception through the use of various devices, sexual practices, chemicals, drugs or surgical procedures. The concept of family planning is used interchangeable with concept the current method in purpose of preventing conception the current method in existence have been categorized in to five groups.
Firstly, being regarded as the most common methods of birth control (Sai F., 2004) Hormonal methods which appear in the form birth control pill, Depo-Provera, hinelle vaginal rings all control manufactures forms hormones estrogen or progesterone.
All the different types containing the mentioned hormones work in three ways:
- Firstly by preventing woman’s ovaries from releasing an egg each month.
- Secondly by causing the cervical mucus to thicken making it hard for sperm to reach and penetrate the egg and
- Lastly by thinning the lining of the uterus which reduces like 1: hood that a fertilized egg will implant in the uterus well (Williamson L.M Parkes A, Pehicre M; Hart G, 2009)
The second category of birth control method is “barrier methods” these family planning methods work by physically preventing sperm from entering the reproductive system. These devices include: – Male condom, female condom, spermicides, diaphragm, cervical and contraceptive sponge.
The third category of birth control method is “withdrawal and sterilization” withdrawal involves the removal of the erect penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation; on the other hand sterilization involves the surgical closing, through the uterus. Tying or blocking of the fallopian tube so egg cannot travel through the uterus.
The skewed argue reflect the prevalence of family planning use as well as challenges in accessing family planning services in this particular region. Clearly most people in developing counties want and are having smaller families than in the past. This development has been greatly helped by the wider availability of high quality, safe and affordable family planning services in some region such as African; many people are still having more children they want. (Gribble J; Haffey James 2000).
The 2008 estimates indicated that sub-Saharan Africa had about 14 million unintended pregnancies, with almost half occurring among woman age 15 – 25 years. Today there are 24.8 percent of women who want to use family planning but to continue having unwanted pregnancies. According to the Millennium development goals report, one in four women who wish to delay or stop child bearing is not using any firmly palming method. Achieving the desired population growth rates will require expanded access to a family planning especially in the poorest countries. People regardless of their age must have access to a wider range of family planning the method of all stages of their reproductive lives.
The impact access to family planning has on the rate of fertility in sub Saharan Africa is of vital importance, it therefore require urgent attention from National Government.
The African continent should bear in mind that the more women use family planning, the less fertility rate, natural increase and growth rate in Africa (Dodoo, F.N 2001). Family planning has been a common problem with the developing countries in the world, due to lack of family, the population of the developing countries using Nigeria as a typical example when unchecked increased geometrically the lack of family planning which led to an increase in Nigeria population is as a result of lack of woman education, poverty etc. It is common observation to everybody that what we often say is a blessing could turn to be a curse as in the case of the increasing population of a country. The only way this can be prevented is through the use of birth control or family planning and this is one of the major ways in which Nigeria population can be reduced. One question that always comes to my mind is that if fertility is not controlled and it grows beyond its carrying capability, then there will be a huge problem into a country especially the developing countries. The above mentioned as an agent of reduction of the increasing population in Nigeria, case study of Rafi Local Government Area.
It is important to know that what so ever happens in any socially always begin from the family. However, another question that can really come to mind is this “what is family planning”?
Through many authors has defined it in various way; family planning is defined as a process whereby parents or couples have their children by choice and not by chance. This we mean that couples can control the number of children then went through more people use family planning than ever before. More than half of the couple in the developing countries use family planning today compared with 10% in the 1960s. This dramatic increase in family planning use has caused fertility to decline much more rapidly in the developing countries and if this is achieved, it can lead to the attainment of optimal population which is the best types of population in both developing countries.
There also exists male sterilization which is the surgical closing of tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis.
The forth category of birth control methods is abstinence as a means of conception; abstinence is the voluntary refraining from sexual inter course. This method is regarded as the only prevention of both pregnant and sexually transmitted diseases. The last category of birth control methods is the fertility awareness method which is often called “natural family planning’’. A part from abstinence and withdrawal method, this is the third method that does not rely on devices or medicated to prevent pregnancy. The natural family planning method uses the natural functions of the female body and menstrual cycle to calculate ovulation. It require abstinence from sexist intercourse during the ovulation period (William L.M, Parkes A. Wight D. Pettcrem; Hart G, 2009,).
According to Gribble J and Haffey, J (2008) demographers regard withdrawal and abstinence as traditional methods while the other methods are regarded as modern method to promote small family sizes and prevent unwanted pregnancies. All those come as a overall initiative to slow population growth.
A combination of good access to family planning services and increased family planning use has led to a decline in fertility rates in Southern India and Sri Lanka.
Access to good quality, voluntary of family planning services and increasingly higher levels of family size for fertility to fall to law levels, many factors are key, this include a significant increase in the use of family planning. Sufficient evidence is not because woman in Africa want to have more children than woman in other regions.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
According to (WHO, 2011) every day, 1,600 woman and more than 10,000 newborns die from preventable complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Almost 99% of these maternal and 90% of the neonatal death occur in the developing countries. Nigeria is most populous country in Africa with about 150 million people. It also has a high annual rate of population growth (3.5%) and a total fertility rate of 6.0 life time births per woman. Additionally, the country has relatively high level of infant mortality (104 infant’s death per 1,000 live births) and maternal mortality of (800 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (WHO, 2011).
Over-population is one of the major threats to every developing society or country like Nigeria by increasing the demands on requirement of the community and indirectly encouraging wider spread of diseases such as cholera which in turn back fires to the economy of the country. Other socio-cultural value could also be reduced due to over population, therefore the continuous quest for a well informed society about family planning cannot be over looked.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of objective of this study is to find out the importance of family planning in Rafi Local Government of Niger State. The will be achieved especially amongst woman of child bearing age and review the present effect and attempt by all tiers of government in respect of ensuring increase awareness of family planning in the area of study.
The general objective of this study:
- To enlighten the public on the meaning of family planning.
- To examine the important of family planning to Nigeria as a country and one self.
- To examine the strategy that can be adopted in encouraging the people to accept the family planning.
- To examine the family planning facilities available in the community.
- To know the importance of family planning.
- It will help to find the level of knowledge of family.
- It will help to find out the level of acceptance and the use of modern family planning method among women of child spacing.
- It will also help to find the advantages to benefits of using modern family planning among women of child bearing age.
- It will help to find out the strategies to encourage the mothers of child bearing age to accept family planning method in order to reduce infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rate.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is family planning?
- What are the importance of family planning to Nigeria as a country and one self?
- What are the strategies can be adapted to encourage the acceptance and use of modern family planning method?
- What are the family planning facilities available?
- What are the benefits of family planning?
- What strategy can be adopted to encourage the acceptance and use of modern family planning method?
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study seeks ensure the importance of family planning in Rafi Local Government Area of Niger State. The study will be limited to Kagara town and its environs giving serious attention to what is family planning, the importance of family planning, the acceptance and the use of modern methods, the level of knowledge about family planning, advantages and benefits in reducing infants and maternal mortality and morbidity rate through health education of woman of child bearing age. The limitation of this work is time constraint and also difficult terrain to access other part of the local government.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Child Spacing: This is interval which is between the couples to have the numbers of children they want.
- Lactation: This is the period during which an infant is nourished with the breast milk.
- Maternal: Are woman child bearing age between 15-45 years.
- Morbidity: This is the degree of damage or effect cause by diseases in the population of the community.
- Mortality: Is the percentage of death cause by a disease in the population of the community.
- Planning: This is a way of arranging scheme of a particular setting to meet a specific goal.
- Population: Is the total number of people in a given area.
- Pregnancy: This is the period from the onset of conception to the expulsion of foetus.
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Full Project – The importance of family planning on child spacing