Full Project – The impact of infectious epidemic on agriculture and food security
1.1. Background to the Study
The agricultural sector in Nigeria have little ammunition with to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Government of Nigeria is forced to balance the health of their citizens with economic stability and their own debt. After more than a decade of unprecedented economic growth, the world is facing another global economic recession. In the past week, Nigerian government have been introducing aid programmes to ease the economic pressure brought about by the COVID-19 outbreak and the inevitable economic downturn that will follow.
Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health sector and the government of any nation. The Nigeria private sector and the agricultural sector get affected. As public life shuts down, concerns over food supply are the latest scare. Market stability and availability of supplies are the backbone of a country’s GDP.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that can spread from person to person. The virus that causes COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak in Wahan China in late December 2019. COVID-19 is spreading from person to person in China and limited spread among close contacts has been detected in some countries outside China including Nigeria. There is presently no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and there is no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19.
Akinboyo (2008) defines Agriculture as the science of making use of the land to raise plants and animals. It is the simplification of nature’s food webs and the rechanneling of energy for human planting and animal consumption. It is not an overstatement to assert that the growth and development of any nation depend, to a large extent, on the development of agriculture.Agriculture has serve as an engine of growth in the Nigerian economy.
The contribution of the agricultural sector to any economy cannot be over emphasized when considering its employment potentials and financial impacts. Nigeria’s wide range of climate variations allows it to produce a variety of food and cash crops. The importance of agriculture to the economic development of Nigeria is enormous owing to the fact that agriculture was the main source of food and employment for a sizeable number of the people.
Although COVID-19 epidemic is primarily a public health crisis, experts are already voicing out their concerns that the virus could have a much broader impact on Nigeria and the Global economy, leading to worldwide socio-economic disruptions. Their stability is crucial to keep the system up and running. Individuals are being placed on quarantine or lockdown, as a result, the ability to carry out agricultural activities is limited.
This study, therefore, is posed to assess the impact of Infectious epidemic on agriculture and food security a case study of corona virus disease.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
The human health state is considered the most critical to any country survival of a truism that healthy population bring about the desired goals. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) discovered in 2019 spread from person to person. The first case of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa has been confirmed in Nigeria.
From evidence available to us, COVID-19 is presently in Nigeria,
The patient who first brought it to Nigeria is an Italian citizen who works in Nigeria and flew into the commercial city of Lagos from Milan on 25 February 2020. (BBC News, 2020).
Globally, more than 2,000,000 people in over 150 countries have been infected. Over 45,000 have died, the vast majority in China’s Hubei province, Italy, UK, USA, Germany and Spain. In Nigeria 11 death has been recorded and over 350 infected.
The most vulnerable populations will face increased food insecurity. The threat of not having access to particular desired foodstuffs is eclipsed by the threat of not having any source of income or access to food at all. More than 820 million people around the world find themselves in this latter situation as they face the additional threat of a global pandemic. Without a doubt, the number of people experiencing hunger is going to increase dramatically. Recommended or mandatory social isolation around the world means millions of people will suddenly find themselves unemployed. The quality of food available is also likely to worsen.The long-term food supply will be more uncertain. Food products will experience price volatility for various reasons including depreciation of currencies or scarcity due to isolation measures, coronavirus outbreak in agricultural area, disruption to transportation system.
In Nigeria, the ability to contain this virus also lie within the help of the populace in complying with the directives of the government. Food shortage in Nigeria would be a serious crisis under a coronavirus lockdown and it is imperative that plans are put in place to ensure the supply chain.
It is against this background that the researcher considered the study of the impact of infectious epidemic on agriculture and food security a case study of corona virus disease.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The aim of this study was to investigatethe impact of infectious epidemic on agriculture and food security a case study of corona virus disease. The specific objectives are to:
- examine the level of coronavirus diseasein Nigeria.
- investigate the impact of coronavirus disease on agricultural activities in Nigeria.
1.4. Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions:
- What is the level of coronavirus disease in Nigeria?
- What is the impact of coronavirus disease on agricultural activities in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The study is guided by the following hypothesis:
H0: There is no significant relationship between coronavirus disease and agricultural activities in Nigeria.
1.6. Significance of the Study
The study will enable relevant agencies concerned with eradicating COVID-19 in Nigeria to know the implications of coronavirus disease on the agricultural sector. Empirically, this study is carried out to investigate the impact of infectious epidemic on agriculture and food chain. This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in the agricultural sector for rapid capacity investment. The changing character of the agricultural sector has affected the industry in recent times and will push studies on the impact of infectious epidemic on agriculture and food securityto new evidence(s). It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter. This study will be of benefit to;
The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.
Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the agricultural sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the sector.
Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.
1.7. Scope of the Study
This study is intended to examine the impact of infectious epidemic on agriculture and food security a case study of corona virus disease with particular emphasis on farmers in 2020.The study covers farmers across the country.
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined operationally.
- Epidemic: a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
- Disease:a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal or plant especially one that produces specific symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.
- Infectious: (of a disease or disease-causing organism) liable to be transmitted to people, organisms, etc. through the environment.
- Agriculture:is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock.
- Food security:the availability of food and one’s access to it.
- Food: any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. It is any nourishing substance that is eaten, drunk, or otherwise taken into the body to sustain life, provide energy, promote growth etc.
1.9. Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument. Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.
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Full Project – The impact of infectious epidemic on agriculture and food security