Full Project – The effects of improper solid waste disposal on the health of inhabitants of selected local government
1.1 BACKFROUND OF THE STUDY
The research work is carried due to the menace of improper solid waste disposal in pandogari community which causes, some specific health hazard that probably led to illness in the community. Improper waste disposal causes various types of pollution: air, soil, water thermal and radiation. Indiscriminate dumping of waste contaminates surface and g round water supplies (Ivi, 2014).
Solid waste can be defined as unwanted or any discarded materials arising from humans activities an which are not free flowing (Olorrunda, Omonayajo, Aibor 2012) according to avi (2015) solid waste management are measures taken to ensure that waste generated in the community surroundings, industries, workplaces are well disposed of its final stage in a way that it will not pose hazards to man and his property.
Poor sold waste disposal has been a deadly practice and problem to public health. It has attracted the interest of the government, non-governmental organizational and world health organization in general. The effect of improper solid waste disposal imposes danger on man’s health. Indiscriminate and inappropriate domestic litter disposal habits as well as poor industrial waste disposal system have been identified and proved to be basic features in rural settlement.
Solid waste disposal / management is therefore an act of professional and skill full arrangement of human and material resources in the collection, storage, transportation treatment and final disposal of waste in such a way that it will not constitute risk and hazards to human and his environment (ovu 2015).
In the early days, waste disposal did not pose difficulty as habitants were sparse and land was plenty full.
Waste disposal become problematic with the rise of towns and cities where large numbers of people started to congregate in relatively small area in pursuit of lively, hoods (sahfiul and mansor, 2013). It can also lead to odour, nuisance, fly infestation, unsightliness, accident, breeding of vectors, poor aesthetic nature of the environment. These are all related to the practice of poor soled waste disposal this can result in the loss of human resources needed in the development o the country (freduah, 2014).
In the recent years various methods have been employed in the disposal and management of the wastes generated by residents and industrial owners, these methods includes: burning, composting, controlled tipping, industrial incineration and recycling. The growth in population and urbanization accelerated industrialization in most of our towns and cities (unuary, 2008).
Waste management especially in Nigeria and other developing countries in Africa, is hydra headed. It poses a multidimensional problem ranging from collection to disposal owing to the level of orientation of the generation of waste and the technological advancement of the agencies saddled with the responsibility of managing waste (Ivi, 2014).
Disposal of refuse without proper supervision often amounts damage to the environment and ultimately to the human body system. A public health physician, prof akin osibogun, says improperly disposed refuse has both direct and indirect health effects. The direct health effects arise from excessive breeding of vermin and agents of disease such as rats, flies, and mosquitoes.
“Rats are known to transmit diseases such as leptospirosis, lassa fever and some other haemorrhaging fevers, salmonellosis and plaque” he said transmission of diarrhea diseases such as shigellosis while mosquitoes are well known for transmission of malaria.
Apart from infectious diseases, improper disposal of waste especially solid waste will also result ot leachate and contamination of ground water and this can result in outbreak of feaco-oral diseases. He explains that leachate is the liquid that forms as water trickles through contaminated areas. It is a very harmful mixture of chemicals that may result in hazardous substances entering surface water, groundwater or soil.
The improper disposal of waste also cause injuries e.g. from broken bottles, rusted metal objects etc resulting in cuts a slippery constituents resulting falls. Waste also generates methane gas which is highly inflammable and improperly disposal of refuse is therefore a fire hazard leading to fire outbreak.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS.
Rapid population growth and urbanization in developing countries has led to people generating of enormous quantities of solid waste resulting in environmental degradation. The waste is normally disposed of though open dumps creating nuisance and environmental degradation.
Solid waste causes a major risk to public health and the environment. Management of solid waste is important in order to minimize the adverse effects posed by their indiscriminate disposal.
Improper waste disposal e.g. solid waste, poor sanitation and hygiene are at the heart of disease and exposed many people to communicable diseases like cholera, malaria, typhoid and other hazardous conditions like odour, nuisance fire disasters accidents etc.
Every year too many children under the age of five have their lives cut short or altered forever as a result of improper waste disposal and poor sanitation: more than 800,000 children worldwide- or one every two minute – die from diarrhea, and almost half of all deaths of children under five are due to improper waste disposal and poor sanitation. (W.H.O. 2015).
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
This project will serve as a blueprint in organizing survey that might be useful for others researchers and health planners latter in future. It will also assist in greater measure in developing a positive attitude towards proper solid waste disposal in our environment arroud the metropolis as certain insanitary behavior of indiscriminate dumping of waste of all kinds into environment is prejudicial to the health of inhabitant of Pandogari, Rafi Local Government Area Niger state.
It is also expected that this research work will serve as an eye opener and guideline to inhabitants of pandogari about the importance of improper waste disposal to their health and also the deleterious effects of improper waste disposal especially solid waste. It will also help the government in solving waste disposal problems though formulation of appropriate feasible policies towards provision of proper methods of solid waste disposal in this area and its metropolis.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study will specifically address to effects of improper sold waste disposal in pandogari community of Rafi Local Government Area of Niger State.
1.5 BROAD OBJECTIVES
This broad objective of this study is to investigate the effects of improper solid waste disposal on the health of people in pandogari, Rafi Local Government Area of Niger state.
- SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
- to identify the various methods of solid waste disposal in pandogari community, Rafi local ovennment area, Niger state.
- To investigate the health effects of methods of solid waste disposal practicing in pandogari Rafie local government area Niger state.
- To determine the health probles that may arise as a result of improper solid waste disposal among the inhabitant of pandogari, Rafi local government area of Niger state.
- To describe visible means to put in place to ameliorate the light of the inhabitants of pandogari community towards provision of proper methods of solid waste disposal.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the methods of solid waste disposal in the study area?
- What are the health effects of current methods of solid waste disposal practicing in pandogari Rafi local government Area Niger state?
- What are the health problems that may arise as a result of improper solid waste disposal in pandogari?
- What are the visible measures that can be put in place to ameliorate the plight of inhabitants of pandogari?
DEFINATIONS OF TERMS
- WASTE: this could be defined as useless, unwanted or discarded materials at a particular place and time arising from normal activities of the communities
- SOLID WASTE: defined as any unwanted or discarded, useless, spoiled or condemned materials arising from normal community activities which are not free flowing.
- WASTE DISPOSAL: waste disposal is the step by step process of treatment and disposal of all classes of waste arising from human activities in such a manner that it will not create any public health nuisance in the community.
- ENVIRONMENT: these are the sum total of all surrounding of a living organism, including natural forces and other living things, which provide conditions for development and growth as well as of danger and damage.
- ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH: this is defined as the control of all those factors in man’s physical environment which exercise or may exercise deleterious effects on man and his physical development, health and survival.
- NUISANCE: Any act, omission, place or thing which is injurious to the health of a man and property.
- SANITATION: control of physical factors in human environment that could harm development, health or survival.
- DISEASE: Is a particular abnormal condition or disorder of a structure or function that affect part or all of an organism (W.H.O. 1978).
- INFECTION: Is the invasion oaf an organisms into body tissue by disease causing agent, their multiplication and the reaction of the host tissue to these organisms and the toxins they produce.
- HEALTH: Is a complete state of physical, mental and social well being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (W.H.O 1978).
- HAZARD: This is a situation which can constitute risk or dangerous conditions within the working and living environment that nave tendency of causing injury and accidents.
- LEACHATE: Is a liquid coming out from solid waste that is biodegradable in nature during decomposition process by micro-organism which its resultant effect leads to contamination of grand water.
- POLLUTION: Is defined as the release of substances in the concentration above normal level that produce negative effects on human beings. Plants, animals and other materials. According to oglubenga et-al.(2007).
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Full Project – The effects of improper solid waste disposal on the health of inhabitants of selected local government