Full Project – The effect of work environment and work stress on job satisfaction among female staff in the polytechnic
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Job satisfaction is an important component of employees work motivation and encouragement for better performance. It is a measure of how happy employees are with their job and working environment. Employee satisfaction is the degree to which employees feel personally fulfilled and content in their job roles (Salunke 2015). Employees are loyal to their organizations and productive in their work when they are satisfied with their jobs. An employee’s level of satisfaction is very important factor for a manager or organization to predict an employee’s rate of absenteeism, desire to resign or quit the job (Ahmed, 2021). Job satisfaction is the positive impact of employees toward their jobs or working environments. The responsibility of any institution whether it is a large organization or a small firm, is the ability to attain higher levels of productivity having employees as the dynamic operative organizational system. Attitudes of the employees, whether satisfied or dissatisfied, regulate the magnitude at which the organization possibly will achieve its goal. In light of this concept, it is of paramount importance to comprehend the factors that affect the degree of employee satisfaction (Daud, 2001).
There are various factors which influence employee satisfaction across all sectors.
The most important factors which were identified are remuneration, working conditions, teamwork, and nature of the work (Poza, 2000).
Job satisfaction has impact on the return on investment since the organizational performance depends on employee performance because human resource capital of organization plays an important role in the growth and development of such organization. Job satisfaction is a very important part for an organization.
However, job stress and employee job satisfaction are two separate concepts but the two concepts are interconnected with each other. If the employees of an organization are happy with their work and don’t feel stress on their job then this is good for the organization because it is said that a happy worker is a productive worker.
Rapid change requires a skilled and knowledgeable workforce with employees who are adaptive, flexible, and focused on the future. Working environment plays an important role towards the employee’s satisfaction. Working environment is one of the most crucial factors which influence the level of satisfaction as well as motivation of its employees (Agbozo, 2017).
Working environment is argued to impact immensely on employee’s satisfaction either towards negative or the positive outcomes (Chandrasekar, 2001). A work environment is made up of a range of factors, including company, culture, management styles, hierarchies and human resources policies (Agbozo, 2017). The working environment refers to the relationship between a worker and his environment that can be broken down into different dimension like the social, technical and economic in which the work is normally reviewed and designed (Salunke, 2015). Better outcomes and increased productivity is assumed to be the result of better workplace environment. Better physical environment of office will boost the employees and ultimately improve their satisfaction. Work environment plays an important role in an organization. Most of the problems faced by employees are related to working environment. The level of job satisfaction can be increase through developing a conducive working environment in the organization. (Bakotic, 2013).
Work stress occurs with the interaction between an individual and the environment, which produces emotional strain affecting a person’s physical and mental condition. Stress is caused by stressors, which are events that create a state of disequilibrium within an individual. It was observed that the cost of too much stress on individuals, organizations, and society is high. Many employees may suffer from anxiety disorders or stress-related illnesses. In terms of days lost on the job, it is estimated that each affected employee loses about 16 working days a year because of stress, anxiety or depression (Harvey, 2011). Stress was described in terms of external, usually physical forces acting on an individual. Later it was suggested that the individual’s perception and response to stimuli or events were a very important factor in determining how that individual might react, and whether an event will be considered stressful, stress is a response to external or internal processes, which reach levels that strain physical and psychological capacities beyond their limit.
A good working environment makes employees feel good about coming to their work which increase the level of job satisfaction. Work stress makes employees to feel dissatisfied where there is no stress the employee will be motivated and the level of job satisfaction will increase, when the satisfaction is increasing the organization goal will be achieved. Employee’s satisfaction and performance is important and necessary in an organization, a satisfied employee would have higher performance that will increase the level of productivity. Thus, the focus of this study is to examine the effect of work environment, work stress and job satisfaction among female staff in The Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Today a disappointing situation has taken over the moral filled minds of workers. Practically, absenteeism of staff, absent without official reason or approval are obvious in most of these institutions, these situations have made disciplinary measures or procedures embedded in the school document to check the occurrences of the aforementioned abnormal attitudes that look like a toothless bull dog. Adebayo (1994) admitted that lack of control and discipline in the institution had given room for deviant work behavior and inefficiency in institutions. The Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State is characterized by poor remuneration, working environment, team work, and nature of the job and lack of fairness in treating among workers in the organizations.
The female staffs working in the institution faced difficulties, in relating with unmarried men working in the same institution. This is because they feel as if the unmarried ones are not of the same status and relating with them may portray a kind of distrust between the spouses which may affect their level of productivity, where There are a lot of male staffs and it may happen to be one female staff she will feel very bad while attending to male student considering the fact that she is a female and they may in some cases want to harass her, and some time she may not be at work a female student may feel bad by open up herself to male staffs and its affect job satisfaction. And in some institutions that is owned by some private individual may be doing tribalism in their institution by employing of his tribe leaving good staffs (nepotism) working hours also affect job satisfaction as a married staff facing difficulties in their working hours because some of them are married and their husband may not allow their wife to stay late at work leaving her family at home and her attention would also be divided and that will cause her lack of satisfaction.
This study is a clarion call by Ongunya, Kowa, Wakibi and SSenyange (2019), Naz and Sharma (n.d), Amalia (2018). Specifically, Amalia (2018) suggested the incorporation of work stress and work environment in future studies which this study is coming handy to take of it. Additionally, Ongunya, Kowa, Wakibi and SSenyange (2019) suggested the use of private sector health facilities as a unit of analysis in future studies between work environment and work works stress as they affect job satisfaction in which this study in answered the call by considering The Polytechnic Bali as area of investigation. Finally, Naz and Sharma (n.d) suggested the use of female staffs in future studies in examining the relationship between work stress and work environment.
Thus the current study also answered the call by incorporating female staffs in examining the relationship between work stress, work environment and job satisfaction.
Thus, the thrust of this study centered on examining the effect of work stress and work environment on job satisfaction among female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
This study examine the effect of work environment and work stress on job satisfaction among female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali, the specific objectives include
- To assess the effect of work stress on job satisfaction among female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali.
- To examine the effect of work environment on job satisfaction among female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali.
- To assess the combination of work environment and work stress on job satisfaction among female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali.
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the effect of work stress on job satisfaction among female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali?
- What is the effect of work environment on job satisfaction among female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali?
- What is the combined effect of work environment and work stress on job satisfaction among female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali?
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will be significant to the management of The Polytechnic Bali Taraba state, the student researcher and the body of knowledge.
To The Management; the finding of this study will unveil the significant effect or other wise of the work environment and work stress on job satisfaction among female staffs in selected private hospitals which the findings will be used in policy and strategy decision making for their organization so as to achieve the overall objectives of the organization and gender equality in times of staff service
To the Ministry of Health; the finding of this study will be rounded how the deficient the working environment and working stressful in private health sectors of Taraba state which will be corporate in proper decision of the working environment.
To the Development Patters; the finding of the study will be significant to enable the development in Taraba state how to unveil out the environment and the resources in terms of need because some people want to help but they want to know the extent of your resources.
To the student researcher; this study will be significant to the student researchers because it will enable the student to meet up with the requirement of obtaining the higher national diploma certificate in business administration and management from the polytechnic Bali Taraba state.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study will focus on effect of work environment/work stress and job satisfaction on female staffs in The Polytechnic Bali. This study will find out how job stress and working environment has a significant impact upon female staffs.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Working environment is an entirely which comprises the totality of forces, actions and other influential factors that are currently and, or potentially contending with the employee’s activities and performance.
Employee Engagement: Employee engagement is defined in general as the level of involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values.
Job Satisfaction: Job Satisfaction is the attitudes and feelings people have about their job. It is the degree to which an employee has positive emotions towards the job role.
Job Stress: Stress is the psychological and physical state that results when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation.
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