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History had it that, women in the past practiced family planning called “Natural method of family planning”. The method of family planning emphasized on observing the menstrual period and avoiding sexual intercourse until the menstrual cycle is over.

In the modern technology, it has brought some other methods of family planning which the women and even girls are practicing them to the highest degree. However, it is impossible for illiterate women to adapt the modern method of family planning and abandon the olden method. Therefore, the attitude of illiterate women will never be the same with that of literate ones.

Moreover, the topic of this research work is “the attitude of illiterate women towards family planning”. A case study of Kwande local government area of Benue state.

This chapter deals with introduction, background of study, statement of research problem, research questions, purpose of the study, significance of the study, delimination/scope of the study and definition of terms.


Kwande local government area is one among the twenty three (23) local governments areas in Benue state.

The local government area was created in 1976 after the Tiv division was split into three autonomies: Gboko, Makurdi and Katsina-Ala  under the leadership of Col. Abdullahi Shelleng. “Adikpo was chosen as the administrative headquarter of the local government area.

The local government is located in the North-Eastern part of Benue state, it is bounded in the West by Vandeikya local government area,  South by Cross River state, Republic of Cameroon in the East, Katsina-Ala and Ushongo local government in the North.

Kwande local government is an agrarian society. The inhabitants engage in the production of arable food crops such as yam, cassava, sweet potatoes, sorghum, etc. they also grow tree crops like citrus, fresh mangoes (ive) kolanuts, mangoes, etc. for life sustenance. However, the most important economic crop in the local government is ‘’Rice’’. The crop is grown in both lowland and upland areas. On the mountain areas such as the southern parts of Shangev-ya, Ikyurav-ya and Turan, the crop is grown on mountain sides after clearing natural forest/vegetation. The crop when harvested is marketed either in processed or unprocessed form to traders from the eastern and southern parts of the country.

The popular markets for the sale of commodity in ghthe local government are: Jato-aka market in Turan distric, Ikyogen market in Ikyurav – ya district. However, the most viable market for processing and milling of the commodity in the local government area is Adikpo market.

The prominent features surrounding the Adikpo town also serves as the headquarters of the local government area found in the western part of the local government there are also some hills which accommodates tree and wide animals.

Oral interview and other write-ups has shown that, the local government name was derived from the word Ukondugh which literally means “mountain drivellers” because of its hilly nature. In the South Eastern part of the local government area, there is a cattle Ranch reweave and animals of different species kinds are found there.

Many rivers are found in the local government, among them are: “Mlomun” which flow from the Eastern part to the South Eastern part of the local government, “Amire” which takes its sources from the Eastern direction to the North – East.

Climatic conditions experienced in the local government are “Wet and Dry” seasons. The North East trade wind and South West are responsible for their seasons bringing up “dust” from November to March and “moisture” from April to October year in year out.

In the nutshell, the local government area is strategically situate in the guinea – savannah vegetation, the climate, tropical and the landscape is gentle and undulating.

Kwande local government area of Benue state have the following districts.

1.                 Shangev – ya district

2.                  Nanev district

3.                 Ikyurav-ya district

4.                 Nyiev district

5.                 Turan district

6.                 Usar district

7.                 Tongov district I

8.                 Tongov II district

9.                 Adikpo township

10.            Mbawer district

11.            Nyiev-tyev

12.            Mbalaa district

13.            Ilieghe district

14.            Injoughoha


Many women especially those who can not read and write are too found of experiencing pregnancies every year (yearly). This is because of their inability to carryout the family planning effectively if at all they do.

Due to such act, many women have lost their lives and the lives of babies. In the same vain, some because of ignorance have had their wombs removed surgically because of the complication of abortion. Also, some babies are abandoned in gutters, latrines and some other places as a result of the eight letters word called “abortion”.

1.3 Research Question

In carrying out this project work, the following questions were drawn to guide the study:

1.     Have you ever practiced the condom method of family planning?

2.     Do you have any experience about the modern methods of family planning?

3.     Do you believe in pills, as the best family planning method?

4.     Have you ever heard of vasectomy as a method of family planning?

5.     Have you ever practiced implant family planning method?

6.     Have you ever practiced spermicide as a method of family planning?

7.     Do you consider injection as a good method of family planning?

8.     Do you practice intra-uterine device (IUD) as a method of family planning?

9.     Do you prefer the modern methods of family planning than the natural method?

10.                         Do you depends on the natural method of family planning only?


The primary purpose of this study is to:

i.                    Determine the attitude of illiterate women towards family planning in Shangev-Ya district in Kwande local government area.

ii.                  To find out how religious beliefs affect the attitude of people (women) towards family planning.

iii.                To find out how cultural beliefs affect women in the cited area of study.

iv.               To identify clearly the specific method or methods of family planning these women rely on and provide meaningful suggestions toward the elimination of the attitude.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The research work will serve as a source of information for the family council of the chosen local government and to Benue state at large. It will also help the ministry of health to embark on mass literacy campaign to abreast women in the rural areas about family planning processes.

The study will also enable Kwande local government council to educate and give details orientation on various methods of family planning.

The researcher is of the opinion that, the level and degree which the babies are been killed due to abortion will be drastically reduced.


Initially, the study was intended to cover the whole local government area called Kwande, however, because of the large scope in terms of districts and population of people living within the local government and other constraints which include: financial, time and vice versa, the researcher limits the study only to Shangev-Ya district of the local government.


There are certain terms which are used in this research work, to make the terms and the entire work more interesting and meaningful, the researcher provides the meaning of some terms as used or applied in the study as seen below:

Attitude: The way that you think or feel about somebody or something, the way that you behave towards somebody or something that shows how you think and feel.

Illiterate: Not knowing how to read and write,

Abstinence: the method of birth control when the woman or husband stays away from his or her partner in order to avoid sex.

Spermicides: Substances which will kill sperms when they are released during sexual intercourse.

Vasectomy: A medical operation to remove the part of each of the tubes in a man’s body that carry sperms, after which he is unable to pregnant a woman.

Implant: To put or fix artificial something into a part of the body for medical purposes, usually by means of surgical operations.

Condom: A thin rubber covering, that a man wears over his pennies during sex to stop a woman from diseases, a thin robber device that a woman wears inside her vagina during sex to prevent herself from pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.

Injection: An act of putting drug or other substances into the body of persons or animals.

Intra-Uterine Device (IUD): A substance that is fix into the uterus by a medical doctor which act as a barrier the male sperms and female ovum.

Family planning: An arrangement of spacing and limiting the number of children in a family.

Culture: The total ways of life of a group of people in a geographical entity.

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