Full Project – Teachers And Students Perceptions Of Problems Of Effective Teaching And Learning Of geography In Junior Secondary School, Enugu Educational Zone

Full Project – Teachers And Students Perceptions Of Problems Of Effective Teaching And Learning Of geography In Junior Secondary School, Enugu Educational Zone

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The study examinedteachers and students perceptions of problems of effective teaching and learning of Geography in junior secondary school, Enugu educational zone”The research design was a survey design. The population of the study comprised of all the schools within Enugu Local Government Area Lagos. The research used primary sources of data in the course of study. The data were collected via the use of questionnaire. A convenience sampling method was adopted in selecting sample for the study. One hundred and sixty-four questionnaire were administered to five selected schools in which one hundred and twenty-two was returned. Frequency tables was use to analyze the data while the hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistics. The findings further revealed that students performed better when they are in a conducive environment that encourages the learning of Geography. It is recommended that maximum effort should be given to improve the students’ attitude towards Geography.









1.1    Background to the Study

The teaching and learning of Geography in junior secondary schools have been a subject of concern for educators, students, and parents alike. The perceptions of teachers and students regarding the effectiveness of this process are crucial in identifying the problems and formulating solutions. This essay aims to explore these perceptions and the challenges they highlight.


Geography in general is linked with the development of any nation in the world. Geography as a discipline, opens and shuts more doors for men and women than any other content area we have got (Bolaji, 2005). Whether it’s in science, engineering or technology, it is tremendously important that a person be well-armed with Geography if they are going to have options in life (Bramlett and Herron, 2009). Geography is one of the core subjects to be offered to all students till the tertiary levels of education (Ernest, 2004).


Teachers play a pivotal role in the learning process. Their perceptions of the problems in teaching Geography effectively often revolve around several key issues. Firstly, the lack of resources and teaching aids is a significant concern. Many teachers believe that the absence of maps, globes, and other geographical tools hinders the students’ understanding of the subject. Secondly, the curriculum’s breadth and depth are often seen as overwhelming for junior secondary school students. Teachers also express concerns about the lack of time to cover all topics thoroughly. Lastly, the lack of continuous professional development opportunities for Geography teachers is another issue, as it prevents them from staying updated with the latest teaching methodologies and techniques.


On the other hand, students’ perceptions of the problems in learning Geography effectively also provide valuable insights. Many students find the subject to be abstract and difficult to relate to their daily lives. This lack of relevance often leads to a lack of interest and motivation. Additionally, the traditional lecture-based teaching method is often seen as monotonous and unengaging. Students also express difficulties in understanding complex geographical concepts and terminologies. Furthermore, the lack of practical fieldwork and hands-on experiences is another issue raised by students, as these activities can enhance their understanding and appreciation of the subject.


Affective factors such as attitudes also have profound impact on students’ Geography achievement. Karp (2001) in a comparative study of factors influencing Geography achievement found out that there is a direct link between students’ attitudes towards Geography and student outcomes.


Jaji (2002) supports this by propounding that resource shortage, teacher quality, poor teaching, repeated subject failure, peer influence, inadequacy of textbooks, cultural background and language also contribute to poor performance in Geography.


Attitudes towards Geography include liking, enjoying and interest in Geography, or the opposite, and at worst Geography phobia (Ernest, 1989). This means that the students have to like Geography, enjoy the activities performed in Geography and have interest at heart for Geography. On the other hand, attitudes play an important role on students’ Geography achievement. Those who lack confidence in Geography academic skills envision a low grade before the beginning of an examination (Adesokan, (2002).



1.2    Statement of the Problems

Despite the relative importance of Geography, it is very disappointing to note that the student’s performance in the subject in both internal and external examinations has remained consistently poor (Bolaji, 2005). Geography educators have put up noble and spirited efforts aimed at identifying the major problems associated with learning of Geography in the nation’s schools. Despite all these noble efforts, the problem of poor achievement in Geography has continued to rear its head in the nation’s public examinations and Geography is part of it.


Adesokan (2002) asserted that in spite of the recognition given Geography, it is evident that students still show negative attitude towards Geography thereby leading to poor performance. Bolaji (2005) in a study of the influence of students’ attitude towards Geography found out that the teachers’ method of Geography teaching and his personality greatly accounted for the students’ positive attitude towards Geography.

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the study

This research work seeks to study teachers and students perceptions of problems of effective teaching and learning of Geography in junior secondary school, Enugu educational zone and the objectives of this study include to:

  1. Examine the influence of classroom environment on students’ attitudes towards Geography.
  2. Examine the effect of teachers’ personality and behavior on students’ attitudes towards Geography.

iii.      Ascertain the effect of gender differences on students’ attitudes towards Geography

  1. Examine the effect of social background on students’ attitudes towards the learning of Geography

1.4   Relevant Research Questions

The study provides answers to the following questions:

  1. How does classroom environment and students learning style influence on students’ attitudes towards Geography?
  2. What are the effect of teachers’ personality and behavior on students attitude towards Geography?

iii.      How does gender differences affect students’ attitudes towards Geography?

  1. How does social background influence students’ attitudes towards the learning of Geography?

1.5   Relevant Research Hypothesis

The following hypothesis were developed for the study:

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between the attitude of students and the learning of Geography.

H1: There is significant relationship between the attitude of students and the learning of Geography.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The work examines teachers and students perceptions of problems of effective teaching and learning of Geography in junior secondary school, Enugu educational zone. The study is limited to the five selected schools in Enugu Local Government Area in Enugu State.


  • Significance of the Study

The significance of the study are stated below:

The school administrators may use findings from the study to understand the prime factors affecting students’ attitudes toward learning of Geography in secondary school. Also aid teachers to identify deficiencies and limitations as regards the teaching and learning of Geography and make necessary adjustment where necessary. Again, the study enables secondary school principals to be able to plan systematically for staff retention that enhance students’ attitude towards the learning of Geography. Other stakeholders of education (parents, students, teachers, support staff, donors) use the findings of the study as a checkpoint to happenings of the same nature. Finally, the study alerts the students on both positive and negative effects of attitude and perception towards Geography at the present level and future career.


  • Operational Definition of Terms

Attitude:    A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation.


Classroom: A room or place especially in a school in which classes are conducted.

Environment: Environment (systems), the surroundings of a physical system that may interact with the system by exchanging mass, energy, or other properties.


Influence: Influence is the action or process of producing effects on the actions, behavior, opinions, etc., of another or others.

Geography:        The study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols.

Student:    A person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college; pupil

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