Full Project – TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS IN PRIVATE SELECTED SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Teacher effectiveness is a critical factor in the educational outcomes of students. In Nigeria, several studies have been conducted to evaluate this aspect. For instance, Akinsolu (2010) examined teacher effectiveness in Nigerian secondary schools and found that teacher quality significantly impacts student performance. The study emphasized the need for continuous teacher training and development to enhance their effectiveness.
Another study by Oghuvbu (2008) in Delta State, Nigeria, revealed that teacher effectiveness is influenced by factors such as teacher qualifications, teaching experience, and teacher-student ratio. The study recommended that schools should maintain an optimal teacher-student ratio to enhance teacher effectiveness.
In a more recent study, Ajayi and Adu (2013) investigated teacher effectiveness in relation to student academic performance in Lagos State. The study found a positive correlation between teacher effectiveness and student academic performance, suggesting that effective teachers can significantly improve student outcomes.
According to Rhoades and Eisenberger (2012), employees perceive that the institution supports them if resources are provided voluntarily rather than after pressure from trade unions and government regulations on health and safety. Similarly, Chiang and Hsieh (2012) assert that perceived Organisational support is the belief that the employer cares about the needs of employees. It involves mentorship activities such as employee counselling, providing workshops for employees, developing the employees in terms of academic advancement, making sure the teachers have adequate resources in the classroom, employee protection, coaching employees, ensuring friendship among employees and role modelling (Baranik, Roling & Eby, 2010).
However, research by Cloete (2011) shows that, owing to difficulties with policy issues of equity, efficiency, democratic participation, and development of higher education against declining resources, teachers and other employees tend to feel that their needs are not sufficiently catered for. This has recently resulted in numerous strikes by teachers at various organisations of higher learning in most countries in the world.
Given that higher education is now acknowledged as a major driver of the information-knowledge system (Cloete, 2011), educational organisations are urged to support teachers and other employees by creating career opportunities through various professional development initiatives and providing time for such activities (Amin, 2013). As Bilgin and Demirer (2012) reported, the components of perceived Organisational support include training, adequate instructional facilities, autonomy, job security, job safety, recognition, pay, promotion, fairness, and work conditions. Organisational support (organisational support) has proved beyond reasonable doubt that this is an important phenomenon in organisational behaviour because it leads to positive results in the workplace. The ever-increasing importance of Organisational support to teachers cannot be over-emphasised. In particular, Organisational support has been used to enhance teachers’ effectiveness.
Teachers’ effectiveness are teachers’ actions that are relevant to the goals and objectives of school organization. Similarly, Ali and Ahmed (2009) sees teachers’ effectiveness as a teacher’s behavior demonstrated or something done by the teacher for achievement of the school goals and objectives and it is assessed through operational performance outcome and the quality of services rendered by teachers in and out of classroom. Therefore, it can be concluded that teaching effectiveness is an output that is obtained due to the efforts of the school teachers.
School managers can influence cohorts and performance of teachers indirectly through creating an environment in which teachers can work effectively; developing a suitable philosophy that helps teachers shape their commitment towards school organizational goals, and articulating strategy (Alkhaliel, 2013). Blanchard and Witts (2009) argue that when school organisations fail to take the time to actively recognize and reward good performance, the desire for the job weakens with every unrecognized triumph.
Teachers’ effectiveness feedback motivates the employees’ desire to do well. Agarwal (2008) asserts that when teachers are involved in making decisions and participate in the execution of transformations that affect them, they implement transformations faster with higher performance compared to teachers who are only informed of the transformation. Similarly, Across (2005) contends that teachers do not perform well in conditions where autonomy is not guaranteed, particularly when teachers have gained adequate skills for working independently.
However, teacher effectiveness is not solely determined by the teachers’ qualifications or experience. According to a study by Ojedele and Ehindero (2006), the school environment also plays a crucial role. The study found that a conducive learning environment, adequate teaching materials, and supportive school leadership significantly enhance teacher effectiveness.
Despite these findings, challenges to teacher effectiveness in Nigeria persist. A study by Emenogu and Akinwumi (2014) identified inadequate funding, poor infrastructure, and low teacher motivation as key challenges. The study recommended increased investment in education and improved teacher welfare to enhance teacher effectiveness.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Teacher effectiveness in schools in Nigeria is a significant issue that requires thorough examination. Despite the country’s efforts to improve its education system, there are still numerous challenges that hinder the effectiveness of teachers, which in turn, affects the quality of education students receive. The problem is multifaceted, involving issues such as inadequate teacher training, poor remuneration, and lack of resources.
One of the primary issues is the inadequate training of teachers. Many teachers in Nigeria lack the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively teach their students. This is due to the poor quality of teacher education programs in the country, which do not adequately prepare teachers for the realities of the classroom. This lack of preparation often results in teachers using outdated teaching methods, which are not effective in promoting student learning.
Another significant issue is the poor remuneration of teachers. The low salaries of teachers in Nigeria often lead to low motivation and job dissatisfaction, which can negatively affect their performance in the classroom. This is further exacerbated by the lack of resources in many schools, which makes it difficult for teachers to effectively carry out their duties.
The lack of resources in schools is another major problem. Many schools in Nigeria lack the necessary resources, such as textbooks and teaching aids, which are essential for effective teaching. This lack of resources not only hinders the ability of teachers to teach effectively, but also affects the quality of education students receive.
Furthermore, the issue of teacher effectiveness is also linked to the larger societal issues in Nigeria. The socio-economic conditions in the country, such as poverty and corruption, also affect the effectiveness of teachers. For example, corruption can lead to the misappropriation of funds meant for education, which in turn, affects the resources available for teachers.
Teacher effectiveness in schools in Nigeria is a complex issue that involves various factors. Addressing this problem requires a comprehensive approach that not only focuses on improving teacher training and remuneration, but also addresses the larger societal issues that affect education in the country.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study was to examine teacher effectiveness in private selected schools in Lagos State in private secondary schools in Education District VI, Lagos state. Specifically, the study aimed:
- To examine the influence of career development on teachers’ effectiveness.
- To investigate the extent to which incentive packages influence teachers’ effectiveness.
- To examine the influence work design on teachers’ effectiveness.
- To determine the extent to which facilities influence teachers’ effectiveness.
- To ascertain if participation in decision making influence teachers’ effectiveness.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
Ho: There is no significant influence of career development on teachers’ effectiveness.
Hi: There is a significant influence of career development on teachers’ effectiveness.
Hi: There is no significant influence of incentive packages on teachers’ effectiveness.
Ho: There is a significant influence of incentive packages on teachers’ effectiveness.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of studying teacher effectiveness in schools in Nigeria cannot be overstated. The quality of education in a country is largely dependent on the effectiveness of its teachers. In Nigeria, where the education system is grappling with numerous challenges, understanding and improving teacher effectiveness can be a game-changer. This study aims to shed light on the current state of teacher effectiveness in Nigerian schools, identify the factors that influence it, and suggest ways to enhance it.
The findings of this study could have far-reaching implications for educational policy and practice in Nigeria. By identifying the factors that contribute to teacher effectiveness, policymakers can design interventions that target these areas. For instance, if the study finds that teachers’ subject knowledge or pedagogical skills are lacking, the government could invest in professional development programs to address these gaps. Similarly, if the study finds that teachers are demotivated due to poor working conditions or low salaries, policymakers could consider measures to improve teacher welfare.
Moreover, this study could contribute to the global discourse on teacher effectiveness. While there is a wealth of research on this topic from developed countries, studies from developing countries like Nigeria are relatively scarce. By providing insights from a Nigerian perspective, this study could enrich our understanding of teacher effectiveness in different cultural and socio-economic contexts.
Furthermore, this study could have direct benefits for Nigerian students. Effective teachers are key to student learning and achievement. By improving teacher effectiveness, we can enhance the quality of education that Nigerian students receive, thereby equipping them with the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in life.
In addition, this study could also benefit Nigerian teachers. By highlighting the challenges they face and the support they need, this study could advocate for better recognition and treatment of teachers. This could lead to improvements in teacher morale and job satisfaction, which in turn could enhance their effectiveness.
Finally, this study could also have implications for parents and the wider Nigerian society. Parents want their children to receive the best education possible, and society benefits when its members are well-educated. By improving teacher effectiveness, this study could contribute to these goals.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study focused mainly on teacher effectiveness in private selected schools in Lagos State. It covers all the teachers of private secondary schools in Education District VI of Lagos state. The study focused on the following variables: career development, facilities, incentives packages, participation in decision making and work design.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
The operational definitions of terms of the study are:
CAREER DEVELOPMENT: This is a training that takes place in the school for class teachers in order for the teachers to be acquinted with up to date teaching methods. Usually, a professional trainer serves as the course instructor using hands-on training often supported by formal classroom training.
DECISION-MAKING: It is taken in this work to mean behaviour that is exhibited in selecting the best course of action among several alternatives by the school manager by carrying along the school teachers.
FACILITIES: These are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information into students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recordings, slides, transparencies, videos, video discs, workbooks, and electronic media including but not limited to music, movies, radio, software, CD-ROMs, and online services.
INCENTIVES PACKAGES: It is the benefit that arises or given to teachers from performing a task, rendering a service or discharging a responsibility.
TEACHER’S EFFECTIVENESS: This is a school work related activity expected of a teacher on how well the activity was carried out in a secondary school. This is a variety of different aspects of teaching such as; subject mastery, effective communication, lesson preparation and presentation.
WORK DESIGN: This is a new and innovative method of work arrangement. This method lets 2 or 3 people share a 40-hour working week (full-time) between them. For instance one of them works 8 a.m.-12 noon and the other works 1p.m. -5 p.m. or each person works on specific day’s full time.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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Full Project – TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS IN PRIVATE SELECTED SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE