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1.1Background of the study

Teachers’ contributions to students’ cognitive and social-emotional development cannot be overstated. Effective classroom management lays the groundwork for this growth. It has been discovered that in unstructured and chaotic classes, virtually little learning occurs (Elias & Schwab, 2006). Students’ behavioral issues have been shown to constitute persistent risks to their learning environment (Nasey, 2012). Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the function of the instructor in developing effective education. It is often assumed that the outcomes of students at the secondary level are mostly determined by the classroom practices of the relevant instructors with their pupils (Hattie, 2009). According to the findings of the study, teaching can only be effective if the complete teaching environment is made healthy and improved. Schools with excellent procedures but poor management were not yielding strong academic performance. Jones and Jones (2012); Marzano, Marzano, and Pickering (2003); Van de Grift, Van der Wal, and Torenbeek (2011) According to Kaliska (2002), there is an urgent need for good classis management strategies that would aid in ensuring strong academic results and learning at the secondary level. Establishing classroom rules will assist teachers in generating effective and efficient regulations to provide a favorable atmosphere conducive to student learning. Wilson (2006) discovered that primary school instructors viewed positive classroom management approaches to be useful for excellent classroom management and negative classroom management techniques to be ineffectual for classroom management. In their study, Oliver, Wehby, and Reschly (2011) discovered that instructors’ class management tasks and practices have a favorable influence on lowering students’ hostile, negative, sluggish, and unfocused learning styles in the classroom. Teachers that use successful classroom tactics should expect to achieve higher levels of success in their classes.

Primary education is the first level of education, with the main goal of creating, establishing, and providing opportunities for all children, regardless of age, gender, or country of origin, to attain a balanced cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor development.

Pre-Primary Education is required for all children who have attained the age of four years and eight months by September 1st of the year in which their tuition is to begin.

Primary education is required for all children who have reached the age of five years and eight months.

Although the majority of preschools and kindergartens are privately operated, they must register with the government and adhere to federal rules. Preschools and kindergartens are often quite costly, thus only the rich can afford to send their children there. In the early 1990s, the federal government launched an early childhood care and development education (ECCDE) program, but quick changes in political events stymied its growth.

Only 4.7 percent of preschool students had some preprimary schooling in 1991. The program sought youngsters from the neighborhood. As part of their support for the UBE program, several towns began constructing their own nursery and preschool facilities in 2001, using federal funds as well as foreign grants and loans.

With UNICEF aid, a program was developed that focused on how the Ministry might transfer those features of the nursery scenario that boosted learning to the first level of primary school. The program’s major component was therefore the training of 100 Infant Field Officers (IFOs) in classroom management, learning about children’s rights, communication skills, developing teaching aids, and objects to complement reading abilities. The training was conducted in three batches, with participants recruited from all of the country’s administrative regions as well as Georgetown.

Following the training, participants were expected to return to their schools and conduct staff development workshops, not only inside their own school, but also among the cluster of schools in their communities, in order to produce a multiplier effect. This initiative is presently being assessed in order to determine the program’s impact. UNICEF is one of the most important sources of financing for early childhood development. UNICEF was also crucial in the design and implementation of cumulative record cards, which will now accompany children as they progress from nursery to primary school. Curriculum guides and instructors’ manuals, as well as wall graphics for reading and language development, were printed and are currently available in all schools. This has resulted in the implementation of a common timetable for nursery schools across the country.

A review of data from the Ministry of Education’s statistics digests suggests that little more than 30% of nursery school instructors are trained. Continuous attempts have been made to keep this training going. The CPCE not only offers a two-year nursery teacher training program, but the University of Guyana also offers a B.Ed. in Early Childhood Education. The Ministry of Education also nominated teachers to be educated as Nursery Field Officers (often nursery school heads), and weekly seminars were launched. To far, four (4) batches of Nursery Field Officers have been trained, and the nursery level has eighty-five (85) Field Officers scattered across the Regions. These Nursery Field Officers, in turn, conduct seminars inside their respective Regions to help their colleagues improve their abilities. Despite these additional training possibilities, the percentage of trained instructors has not improved much. Some are lost to the primary level, where promotional chances may be perceived to be higher, and others to the private sector.

1.2 Statement of problems

Increasing classroom management practices is vital for students’ high level achievement. Classroom practices have direct relationship with students’ academic achievement (Gage, Scott, Hirn & MacSugaGage, 2018). Teachers’ classroom management is clearly associated with students’ out comes. It was found that effective classroom management significantly increases academic achievement of students and decreases behavioral problems of the students (Korpershoek et al, 2016). Some are concerned that the proportion of educated instructors, particularly trained graduates, may decline in the future. Teachers’ salary and working conditions are not comparable with those given by the private sector or possibilities outside of the private sector, and the education sector has lost many teachers due to migration during the previous two decades. The number of people leaving had slowed somewhat in the early years of the decade, but has since grown as possibilities throughout Africa and other regions of Nigeria have opened up.

Regardless of the importance that must be put on elementary education due to its critical role in the acquisition of basic education, it is equally critical to recognize the interdependence that must exist across the various levels of the educational system.

Up and down the system, one level feeds the other. Today’s untrained or under-qualified instructors are the result of classrooms from yesteryear. The country cannot afford to wait 10 years to witness improvements in the functional literacy skills of today’s six-year-olds while simultaneously increasing its stock of functionally illiterate out-of-school teens and adults. To break the pattern, focus will be made across the system on ensuring sufficient reading and numeracy abilities. Illiteracy will be attacked from different angles. This will entail assessing for reading levels and developing remedial programs well in advance of classroom management.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The broad objective of this study is to examine strategies and training background  in classroom management in private nursery/primary schools. The specific objectives would include among others, the following:

i.          To examine whether teachers possess necessary knowledge on classroom management.

ii.        To know about the classroom management practices level of primary school teachers.

iii.      To ascertain whether training/development techniques and opportunities to facilitate the uses of skills in the management of classroom.

1.4 Research Questions

i.          Do teachers possess necessary knowledge on classroom management skill?

ii.        What is the level of the classroom management practices of primary school teachers.

iii.      Does training/development techniques and opportunities facilitate the uses of skills in the management of classroom.

1.5 Significant of the study

The study will help in will review the techniques in management classroom curricula of the system, and its teaching and learning materials, with respect to gender considerations, and  appropriate revisions will be made. Monitoring tools and mechanisms will be developed by the Ministry of Education for following the treatment of gender issues in the school system, and for providing corresponding feedback to school administrators and teachers.Improved baseline for policy makers and planners on education on , systematic classroom management procedure. The study will be help in developed and implemented policy that will improve classroom management  for the benefit of  effective teaching in the classroom. Training programmes for school administrators, central educational authorities and regional officials will be strengthened and applied more broadly. Special orientation and training programmes will be instituted for newly appointed teaching officials. Similarly, mechanisms will be developed for the involvement of representatives of local communities and regions in overall education planning and delivery, including issues related to the curriculum.

1. 6  Scope Of The Study

The scope of this study borders on examine strategies and training background  in classroom management in private nursery/primary schools.The study however delimited to private schools in  Bwari Area council, FCT, Abuja  in Nigeria.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering private schools in  Bwari Area council, FCT, Abuja  in Nigeria. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for women  in other  States within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint  encountered during the  research,  all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.

1.9       Definition Of Terms

Training: This means training somebody for something in order to be somebody or something; the act of giving teaching and practice to an individual or a worker in order to bring to a directed standard of behaviour, efficiency or physical condition.

Large Class: This is a situation where there is an over crowdedness in a given classroom setting. It is the high teacher – pupil ratio in a classroom.

Small Class Size: This refers to the classroom situation which is small and manageable by the teacher. It represents low and moderate teacher – pupil ratio.

Teaching Effectiveness: This means the teaching method in the school system that is effective, one that serves its purpose and aim of the teaching and learning.

Teacher: A trained person in the field of education who helps pupil, students or learners to learn.

Teaching Aids:- in this study, teaching aids is resources that are used to help transfer information to the pupils. It is also called instructional material.


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