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1.1       Background Study

The quality of education provided by a country or community has a significant impact on the growth of that nation or community. It is commonly accepted that the development of human resources must serve as the foundation for any meaningful progress to take place (Akanle, 2007). The result is that in every community, formal education continues to be the primary vehicle for socioeconomic progress and social mobilization. The distinction between developed and developing countries is not based on differences in skin color, ethnicity, or any other characteristic, but rather on differences in education and knowledge. Even within a culture, individuals are distinguished on the basis of the degree of education they have acquired during their lifetime (Mumthas, 2006). Because of this, education has a significant influence on the evolution of human society. Education is the primary means through which knowledge and information are received and disseminated across the globe. For example, “without education, man is as though trapped in a locked chamber, and with education, he finds himself in a room with all of its windows open to the outer world” (Khan, 2003). Parents have an enormous and substantial influence on their children’s academic success. Parents who are well-educated would place a greater focus on educational quality. Parents who have received an education are better able, as a result of their education, to recognize the importance of the parent-student-school-community interaction in order to promote educational attainment and academic accomplishment in their children, and they prioritize the collaboration (Okantey, 2008).

Children’s lives are complicated, and parents have important responsibilities to play in their children’s lives. The engagement of a parent in the life of a kid influences the course of that child’s future. Parental engagement is a catch-all word that refers to a variety of actions that take place at home, such as excellent parenting, assisting with schoolwork, chatting with instructors, attending school events, and even participating in school governance. When schools and families work together to encourage learning, children are more likely to achieve success not just in school but also in other aspects of their lives. The ability of a student’s parent to provide an atmosphere conducive to learning and to have high expectations for their children’s academic progress and future jobs is, in fact, the most reliable predictor of a student’s performance in school, rather than money or social standing. When students are in an educational setting where the teaching and learning process is taking place, their academic accomplishment is directly tied to their growth and development of knowledge. A student’s academic accomplishment is defined as their performance in the subject(s) that they are studying at their school (Pandey, 2008). The student’s standing in the class is determined by his or her academic achievement. It provides youngsters with a chance to hone their skills, improve their grades, and prepare for the difficulties of the future in the classroom. The importance of parental participation in supporting children’s school achievement has been established as a critical element influencing pupils’ academic performance in the classroom. There are certain areas of parental engagement that are particularly important to consider, yet it is important to note that parents from diverse occupational groups typically have differing approaches to child parenting and varied methods of disciplining and reprimanding their children. These disparities do not manifest themselves consistently in the case of every family, as would be anticipated; rather, they have an impact on the average inclinations of families belonging to various occupational groups. (1994) and (Rothestein, 2004).

The family is the basic cell of society, and it is in this cell that the child’s upbringing must begin as soon as he is born, while still in the cradle. The principles a person has developed from infancy, according to V. Hugo, are like letters inscribed in the bark of a young tree, which grow and increase with the tree, becoming an intrinsic part of the tree. As a result, getting off to a good start is the most critical component of raising and schooling. Nobody ever stated that children were simple to raise from their positions. In addition, they do not provide any recommendations or directions, and there is no stop option (believe me, I checked!). In their place, they bring with them an extremely important collection of physiological and psychological demands, all of which must be addressed. Failure on the part of the parents to address these specialized demands may have far-reaching and long-lasting consequences for the child (Christheisen, 2009). This is due to the fact that parents are their children’s first teachers at home. During the transition from baby to toddler and then to pre-schooler, children learn how to communicate verbally, listen, write, and read, all of which prepare them to succeed academically in school.

It is clearly shown in several research that parents have an impact on their children’s academic success. According to Gadsden (2003), increased parental participation in children’s learning at a young age has a good impact on the child’s school performance, including better academic accomplishment. A family with children who are doing well in school, according to Harderves (1998), has the following characteristics: • Establish a daily family routine by giving time and a quiet location for the children to study and by allocating responsibilities for housekeeping duties.

• Oversee extracurricular activities, such as establishing restrictions on television viewing time, reducing playing time, and keeping track of the groups of friends that students stroll with.

• Ensure that children’s growth and success in school are supported; this includes having a warm and supportive household, taking an interest in children’s progress at school, assisting him or her with homework, and stressing the importance of a good education and future profession with them.

1.2       Statement of the problem

It is impossible to overstate the importance of a parent in the life of a kid at any given period. The home is very important and critical to the well-being and development of a kid in later life. In a three-year longitudinal study effort, Izzo et al (1999) evaluated 1205 students from kindergarten through third grade in the United States. Teachers evaluated four types of parental involvement: the frequency of parent-teacher contact, the quality of parent-teacher interaction, engagement in educational activities at home, and participation in extracurricular activities at the school. These parameters, as well as variables related to family history, were investigated in order to determine whether or not they had any link with academic success as measured by school grades. It was found by Izzo et al. that all kinds of parental participation diminished with the child’s age, and that involvement in the home ‘predicted the broadest range of performance variation’. This finding was consistent with earlier research. In a second longitudinal research, Dubois (1994) discovered that family support and the quality of parent-child connections were strongly associated with school adjustment in a sample of 159 young US teenagers (ages 10–12) who were tracked for two years in a two-year longitudinal study. At-home parental participation has been shown to have substantial benefits on child performance and adjustment that surpass the effects of other types of parental involvement time and time again. When schools and families work together to encourage learning, children are more likely to achieve success not just in school but also in other aspects of their lives. When faced with the challenges of single parenthood, family crises, and the ever-increasing involvement of women in various areas of community and national development, it is reasonable to wonder whether parents are still able to be committed to their wards; or whether they are putting in sufficient effort to ensure that their children learn and perform at an appropriate level.

It was established in the preceding discussion that a student’s socioeconomic status, along with a host of other factors relating to the student’s home environment, such as the educational background of the parents, the health status of the students, the occupation of the parents, and the size of the family, could have an impact on their academic achievement.

Given the significance of education to development, it is puzzling that it is not taken seriously, as seen by the poor pass rates in schools. What, in the particular example of secondary school pupils, is the most important factor influencing their academic performance? When we consider the reasons why certain students do better than others in a real-world setting, we may come up with a variety of hypotheses: is it because they spend more time studying at home? Do they have a greater ability to learn than others? If so, does the student’s personal history, way of life, and surrounding environment assist in his or her academic performance?

1.3       Objective of the study

The general objective of the study is to examine parents economic status and its effect on student academic achievement in imo state secondary schools. Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:

i.          To examine if parents job type affect students academic achievement.

ii.        To find out if parental educational background affect students academic achievements.

iii.      To evaluate  the level of parental involvement on secondary school student academics.

iv.      To investigate how to improve secondary school students academic achievements.

1.4       Research Questions

In addressing this problem, the following research questions will be raised:

i.          Does parents job type affect students academic achievement?

ii.        Does  parental educational background affect students academic achievements?

iii.      What is  the level of parental involvement on secondary school student academics?

iv.      How can there be an improvement in secondary school students academic achievements?

1.5       Significance of this Study

This study will be significant to parents as the responsibility of training a child always lies in the hand of the parents. This is congruent with the common assertion sociologist that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home is relevant in this discuss. It is not out of place to imagine that parental socio–economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school.

The study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6       Scope of the Study

This study will examine if parents job type affect students academic achievement. The study will also find out if parental educational background affect students academic achievements. The study further evaluate  the level of parental involvement on secondary school student academics. Lastly, the study will investigate how to improve secondary school students academic achievements. Hence this study will be delimited to Ebonyi State.

1.7       Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

1.8       Definition Of Terms

Economic status: the social standing or class of an individual or group.

Academic achievement: performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university

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