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The performance in Biology  in public secondary schools has been poor and the purpose of this study was to identify factors responsible for the poor performance. The study also identified ways in which teachers envisage to improve the performance. The qualitative research methodology was adopted. Data was collected from four schools through structured questionnaire. Data was analysed from the perspective of the General System Theory. The results of the study show that performance in Biology  was affected by factors such as human, environmental, information, financial resources, and the transformation processes. The study also suggests ways of improving the performance.







Title page

Approval page




Table of content



1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study




3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis



4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation













  • Background of the study

Learning is enhance when  given in a rich environment ,if  the classroom environment is conducive and has all necessary  learning facilities that is  ,the   more conducive school environment is, the greater the opportunity to learn  ,in other  words, a bare and hostile classroom and  school   environment offer little stimulation to learning (Anyanwu and Izuagba 2009) .The school  environment  includes the class room libraries , laboratories, football field, building, peers,  teaching method, teachers quarters, technical workshop,etc The environment here includes both physical psychological and social environment,  mutual relationship between  the students and the teachers.The environment should be made to suit the purpose of learning.

The teacher/learner is at center of the teaching and learning process; all energies spent by the teacher in and outside the classroom and in the school environment are aimed at ensuring positive all round development.

Thus, the school is an established institution where the behavior of a child is shaped to get him equipped for a meaningful living in the society, the school environment should possess features essential for achieving the goals of education.

In essence, the following areas of the school are recognized to have positive influence on the academic performance of the child,the school building,the school infrastructure,and the school personnel.(Izuagba and Obiefuna 2009)

Glassman (2000) asserted that comfortable and caring environment among other treatment helps to enhance students academic performance. The school facilities and infrastructures are essential for the realization of the educational objectives, facilities such as white board,projector ,notice board, clock, bell, chairs, tables,desk,first aid box,textbooks etc ,are necessary for effective administration of schools,

School environment refers to the instructional administrative circulation and therefore school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students academic performance    (Oluchukwu 2000). The extent to which students learning could be enhanced depends on their interaction within the school premises, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories (Ajao, 2000), it is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcome of education   that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

Environment is one of the major factor  that determine an individual’s capacity to learn and also provides basis for success in future achievement, therefore,this calls for conceited efforts  on the parts of the parents, educators and government to provide adequate school facilities such as well equipped laboratories, functional libraries, and sporting facilities to enhance the intellectual and academic performance  of the school effects on teachers students  and the  learning process, poor ventilation ,noise, high penetration of carbon dioxide into the classroom, inconsistent temperature  makes teaching  and learning difficult,poor  maintenance and ineffective ventilation system leads  to poor  health  among  students as  well as teachers  which  in evitable leads  to  poor health among students as well as teachers which inevitably lead to poor academic performance(Ostender   and Lyon  2001), believe that  these factors can adversely  affect  students  behaviour  and  also  lead  to  rate of frustration  among  teachers  and poor leaning  attitude among  student.

The  academic  performance  of  students in Nigeria  has  been of great  concern  to the  government,  teachers,  parent and  the  students themselves, the standard  of  education  does not depend  only on the teacher as reflected  in the  performance of  their duties but  also in the effective co—ordination  of  the school environment  (Ajao,2000) Beyond the direct  effect  which these inadequate  facilities  have  on  students ability to learn  ,      it’s   combination with other facilities such as instructional aid and infrastructure creates uncomfortable frustrating work space for teacher as well as  unconducive atmosphere  for the students which manifests in poor concentration and hyperactivity, thereby creating a stressful set of working condition for teachers (Ajayi, 2003).Therefore stress and  job dissatisfaction are common precursors which lowers teachersenthusing,hence the above mentioned characteristics of school facilities have  effects  upon the  academic performance  of  the students ,the school  cannot operate in isolation of its immediate social, physicalenvironment, this is because what happen in the immediate environment help to determine the curriculum and the quality of

teachers available to the school any point in time. The nature of environmentaL student passes through can either hinder orfacilitate his ability at acquiring knowledge (Ajayi 2003)

Frazier (2002), Opined that the Psycho-SocioPhysical

Factors that affect learning are;

  1. The learning environment
  2. The learning
  3. The teacher

The physical factor  in learning deals with the environment where  actual  teaching and learning takes place  physical factors are  completely outside the  learners control ,most of  the  child’s teaching and learning  normally take place either in the classroom or laboratory, therefore,there is need for a productive  learning environment  which  according to; Arends(2005), is one  where students have positive attitude  towards themselves and their classroom that  is  their fellow student or peers and where they display a high degree of academic  performance ,both motivation and involvement, in academic tasks.

Teacher’s decision and action also help to   shape the classroom  environment .the class room environment must be designed to support intellectual risk taking and foster intrinsic  motivation so that students will be creative and self-reliance in their  learning .Teachers have to create the right attitude in students towards learning and to gain their leadership functions  as enabling activities that  is  establishing the condition  and interacting with students in ways that enhance their learning (Miller2010).

To this end, there is need to study the influence of school environment on the academic performance of ss2 biology students in Aba North Local Government Area of Abia state,

 1.2 Statement of the Problem

Most schools are faced with problems such as inadequate libraries, classroom,staffroom,laboratory, teaching equipments like instructional aids, andtechnical workshop

These problems have posed great challenges to the  teaching and learning process and also hinder the  academic performance of  Nigerian students. It is generally believed that if  the learning environment is conducive ,and availability of teaching materials, biology students  in secondary schools will be more educated and there  will be less risk of low academic performance, hence does the inadequacy, associated. With inadequate libraries, classroom, teaching equipment among other hinder academic performance of ss2 biology students in Aba North local Government area of Abia state.

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the Influence of school environment on academic performance among biology student in senior secondary school   in Aba North Local government  area of Abia state .

The study will specifically aim at the following;

  1. To find out the extent which school teaching equipment and instructional materials influence student academic achievement.
  2. To find out the rate to which school Location affect theacademic performance of biology student in secondary school
  3. To identify the influence of class size on the academic performance of student in secondary school.

1.4 Significance of the Study                

This study will be beneficial of the following:

  • Teachers
  • Students
  • Guidance Counselor
  • The School
  • Parents
  • Government


With the help of the study the teachers should develop and establish instructional programmes, make use of instructional aids, establish effective method of teacher and adopt good leadership style.


This study will enable the students to observe and recognize some school environment factor and the effect on their academic performance. It will also help them to make appropriate amendment where necessary.


The result of this study will help parents  to   contribute  to the up  keep  and  development of  the school  environment  financially and materially through  the organization  of  parent —  teacher Association (P T A)  a  meeting  conducted in school.

Guidance Counselors

Guidance counselors will benefit from this study it will enable thisgroup of people to lead the student in their right and appropriate future career base on their academic performance.

The School

The  result of this study will help the school to appreciate the  usefulness  and  benefit of conducive school environment  for biology  student it will also create room  for proper amendment  awareness  and comparison among different  schools.

1.5 Research   Question

(1)To what extent do teaching equipment and instruction materials influence students’ academic performance?

(2)To what extent does school location influence the academic performance of secondary school students?

(3)To what extent does class size influence the academic performance of students in secondary school?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

H0: teaching equipment and instruction materials does not influence students’ academic performance

H1: teaching equipment and instruction materials does influence students’ academic performance

H0: school location does not influence the academic performance of secondary school students

H2: school location does influence the academic performance of secondary school students

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the influence of school environment on the academic performance of biology student in all the public Senior Secondary Schools in Aba North Local Government Area of Abia state.

The study is delimited to:

  1. Class size (Small and large class size).
  2. School location
  3. Instructional materials (equipment).


School environment

School environment, also known as school climate, refers to the look and feel of a school. How students feel at school can influence how successful they are. A school’s environment is often affected by its values, rules, safety, and discipline policies


Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution

Instruction material

Instructional materialsare the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment.


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study


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