Click here to Get this Complete Project Chapter 1-5


1.0 Background of the problem

Pupils are said to be populated when a school facility enrolls more pupil than it was designed to accommodate (Hornick-Lockard, 2015). Most schools identified as populated are in areas where the school-age populations are growing fast and most of them in Nigeria are found in urban areas. It had been agreed that overcrowding involves a class of 46 pupils or more (Adaralegbe, 1983).

Ordinarily. the phenomenon of rural-urban drift in an emergent nation like Nigeria normally exerts pressure on the facilities and services such as hospitals, schools, transportation etc. However, the introduction of the Universal Free Primary Education (U.P.E.) first in the old Western Region in 1955 and later in the Eastern Region in 1957 as well as the launching of the U.P.E. Scheme by the Federal Government in 1976 compounded the problems of providing adequate facilities in schools to meet the resultant unprecedented upsurge in pupil enrolment (Akinyemi, 1983). With inadequate planning for the expected population explosion in schools, populated classrooms now become a permanent feature of academic setting at all levels of the educational system.

The Nigerian Government through The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training has successfully made a lot of efforts to make sure that all children acquire at least primary education in early 1990’s and by doing so new community schools were constructed hurriedly to cater for the expanded intake at secondary. Consequently, no teachers or other related inputs were put in place a prior (URT: 2008a). Since 2000 the number of children enrolled in primary and primary school has increased by 3 million (Wedgwood 2005)due to implementation of Primary Education Development Programs and Secondary Education Plan. Due to this increase it has resulted to shortage of teachers in primary schools. The Government of Nigeria implemented the Secondary Education Development Program, to promote economic and social development and reduce poverty through human resource development at the secondary level.

Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Populated classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make pupil to lose interest in school (Cohen and Manion, 1983). This is because large class size does not allow individual pupil to get attention from teachers which always lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance. The idea that school population and class size might affect pupil performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangements and outcomes (MOE, 1984).

The seating arrangement is therefore too important to help pupil understanding in many primary schools in the country. As rightly observed by Cohen and Manion (1983) “a careful attention to seating arrangement contributes as influenceively as any other aspect of classroom management and control to overall success with a class subsequently”.

Seats should be arranged in rows with a reasonable amount of space between them to allow for proper teacher – pupil and pupil – pupil interactions, as well as allow for individual and group work (Cohen and Manion, 1983). To this end, the ratio of teacher to pupil should not exceed 1:40 or at most 1:45 judging by the size of the classrooms. But what one finds in many of these classes is between ratios greater than the ones stated above.

Therefore though a plethora of studies have examined about populated classrooms and performances in secondary pupil, Since the academic success of pupil depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables of class size and school population on the academic performance of pupil in primary school.This study therefore would attempt to assess the influences of populated classrooms in academic performances and looks at how class size affects pupil’ academic performance in primary schools.

1.1 Statement of the problem

A lot of effort such as free primary education had been made by the Government of Nigeria to increase enrolment of pupils in primary schools. Still there a big problem of large number of pupil in schools established by the Government known as Community schools, and yet enrollment of pupil increases year after year without considering available resources in these schools such as classrooms, laboratories and libraries.

Adesina (1990) also affirms that “one potent index for evaluating educational standards and quality is an examination of the physical facilities available for learning experience”. It has already been stated that fail rate has been increasing dramatically. Several factors for this downfall are likely to be accounted for.

The phenomenon of populated classroom as well as poor quality and inadequate furniture in the classroom due to unlimited expansion has taken its toll on the educational system. Only few people will deny that the quality of teaching and learning is on the decline at all levels of the educational system. The poor result of the Primary examination (SSCE) in almost all subjects in recent years is one potent indicator. The increase in examination malpractices cannot be divorced from poor seating arrangement in classrooms. The quantity and quality of interaction in the class are likely to be adversely affected due to lack of space for moving round the class and the overwhelming number of pupils that the teacher has to deal with within a forty-minute lesson.

1.2 Purpose of the study

The study was purposely aimed at examining influence of populated classroom in teaching and learning economic among senior secondary.

1.3 General objective

To determine Incidence and impact of populated classes on the performance of primary pupils: A Case study of Abaji Area Council, Abuja

.1.4 Specific objectives

  • To determine the challenges facing teachers in teaching populated classes.
  • To examine relationship between populated classrooms and their performances.
  • To Identify and describe the alternative methodology that the teacher uses in teaching populated classes.

1.5 Research questions

  • What are the alternatives methodology that the teacher uses in teaching populated classes?
  • What relationship exists between class size and performance in primary school?
  • What are the challenges facing teachers in teaching populated classes?

1.6     Scope of the Study

The work examines incidence and impact of populated classes on the performance of primary pupils

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study are stated below:

The study will serve as a guide to head teachers and Board of Governors, parents and teachers’ association, members of the public, district education officers, district inspectors of schools to realize the effects of populated classroom on students’ performance.


Again, it will enable primary school proprietors to be able to plan systematically for the provision of good classroom. Other stakeholders of education (parents, students, teachers, support staff, donors) will use the findings of study as a checkpoint to happenings of the same nature.


Furthermore, Ministry of Education will be able to renovate or build standard classroom that will aids students assimilation in the classroom. It will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and will stimulate other research as in areas of retention of qualified teachers in government primary schools.

1.7 Definition of terms

Academic achievement or performance: Is the outcome of education extent to which a pupil, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. (Longman English Dictionary).

Populated: Occurs when a facility enrolls more pupil than it was designed to accommodate. (Hornick-Lockard, 2015). E.g if a bus is intended to carry 20 passengers but carries 30, if a class is built to holds 15 pupils but carries 30.

Pupil: A young person in school (Longman English Dictionary).

Teacher: Any registered person in accordance with the law who teaches and facilitates the learning process (Nigeria Educational Act 1995).

Teaching: Refers to imparting new knowledge, skills, attitudes, views or ideas to the learners or pupil in a given place at a specific time. (Nigeria Educational Act 1995).

Get the Complete Project

This is a premium project material and the complete research project plus questionnaires and references can be gotten at an affordable rate of N3,000 for Nigerian clients and $8 for international clients.

Click here to Get this Complete Project Chapter 1-5






You can also check other Research here:

  1. Accounting Research Project
  2. Adult Education
  3. Agricultural Science
  4. Banking & Finance
  5. Biblical Theology & CRS
  6. Biblical Theology and CRS
  7. Biology Education
  8. Business Administration
  9. Computer Engineering Project
  10. Computer Science 2
  11. Criminology Research Project
  12. Early Childhood Education
  13. Economic Education
  14. Education Research Project
  15. Educational Administration and Planning Research Project
  16. English
  17. English Education
  18. Entrepreneurship
  19. Environmental Sciences Research Project
  20. Guidance and Counselling Research Project
  21. History Education
  22. Human Kinetics and Health Education
  23. Management
  24. Maritime and Transportation
  25. Marketing
  26. Marketing Research Project 2
  27. Mass Communication
  28. Mathematics Education
  29. Medical Biochemistry Project
  30. Organizational Behaviour

32    Other Projects pdf doc

  1. Political Science
  2. Psychology
  3. Public Administration
  4. Public Health Research Project
  5. More Research Project
  6. Transportation Management
  7. Nursing