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One of the objectives of education in Nigeria is to prepare the young ones to face future challenges and develop them to meet the nations manpower requirements, schools need to contact examination as yardstick for assessment. Measurement and evaluation of education outcome is a major precaution of school system since its inception, examination has been employed as a tool to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the institution.

Examination is expressed as any process for testing the ability or achievement of students in any area. Examination is a name given to any means of evaluating student’s ability in mastering what they have learned and to determine if the goal of instructional objectives has been achieved. Oladele (2013) sees examination as a means of measuring the outcome of a particular subject for the purpose of clarification test.

Ogunlade (2002) and Idowu(1990) defines examination as a testing device strategically organized to measure the student’s level of understanding over a period of time. According to them it is unique in schools and its outcome is used to determine the level of school learning. Examination is recognized as an administrative tool employed effectively to determine the efficiency of the system, it is also constantly employed by teachers/lecturers to measure the learning outcome and ability of their students.

Idowu (1998) he noted that examination can be in essay or objective form that the essay consist of five (5) to ten (10) questions. Adewumi and Ogunlade (2004) states that essay type  gives students free response to questions and examination could be external or internal, it could be oral, written or both. Examples of internal examination are continuous assessment, test, and terminal semester, annual or promotional examination. Examples of external examinations are WAEC, NECO etc.

Therefore, examination is a recommended testing programme designed to measure the level of learner’s progress with a view to evaluate them. However there has been a development in Nigeria educational system. At every level of educational system efforts are made continually being intensified by parents, teacher’s procedures which is known as examination malpractices.

Therefore examination malpractice has become a common phenomenon in the Nigeria educational system.

According to Durodola (2000) examination malpractice has assumed different and terrifying dimensions because the social canker worm is prevalent even in the foundation of education. Ruwa (1997) traced back examination malpractice to 1914. He further reported that in the University of Maiduguri about 25% of the students interviewed admitted to have engaged in one form of examination malpractice or another.

According to Durodola (2000) the spate of examination malpractice continues to emanate and the great effect of this gross educational misconduct on the students is a major concern to the government, parents, guardians, teachers/lecturers and even the students alike. This study is aimed at investigating this.


As stated earlier examination malpractice is very common today in the Nigeria educational system from primary to secondary school even to the tertiary institutions. Since it originated from the foundation or the scratch of education (early stage) i.e. primary school. This individuals find it difficult to cope as they go higher in the hierarchy of the educational system. Also they find it difficult to be self-reliant. For example you see student sneaking textbooks, curse materials into examination halls and  these are done without those students even thinking about the effect of examination malpractice.

The researchers have also identified that many students in schools go ahead to pay exorbitant fees in other to achieve success in both internal and external examinations.


The aim of the study is to examine the Implication of exam malpractice in selected Institution. The study objectives are stated to:

  1. Find out if indulging in examination malpractice will affect the student’s attitude in preparing for examinations.
  2. Determine if examination malpractice will affect the students study habits.
  3. Find out if examination malpractice affects the school?

The following questions are to be raised in this research work

They are:

  1. Does indulging in examination malpractice affect the student’s attitude in preparing for examinations?
  • Does examination malpractice affect the students study habits?
  • To what extent does examination malpractice affect the school?

The identification of Implication of exam malpractice in selected Institution in Agege was considered desirable at the period when there were reports of examination malpractice in higher institutions.

Therefore, the findings will provide useful information’s that would assist educational agencies like:

The Nigerian union of teachers (NUT), Academic staff union of universities, Ministry of education and examination bodies, etc.

More so, the findings will help the students to consider the retribution of examination malpractice before indulging in the act and also this could help eradicate the problem of examination malpractice in our institutions of learning.


The study examines Implication of exam malpractice in selected Institution. The study was limited to Selected Secondary School in Agege Lagos State. T


  • Examination: it is a test organized to evaluate students’ Academic performance at the end of a period.it is a means of which student’s knowledge are tested and qualifications awarded. In other words it is the process of testing by questioning the knowledge and abilities of the candidate.
  • Malpractice: this refers to unlawful, unethical and unmoral attitude carried out by students. It is a way of violating the rules and regulations laid for the conducts of examination.
  • Examination malpractice: this collectively refers to all forms of misconducts and improper practices in any examination which provide undue advantage to a candidate in an examination and makes the individual result better than the actual level of his ability.
  • Effect: the action or process of producing effects on actions, behavior, opinion of another or other.
  • Education: is the process of cultural transmission and renewal, the process whereby knowledge is transmitted either formally or informally.
  • Policy: this is referred to as a course of action put in place to take care of an existing or future problems in this study, the policy under consideration is an examination malpractice policy.
  • Study habits: this is the pattern of behavior adopted by students in pursuit of their studies that serves as the vehicle of learning.
  • Truancy: habitual absence from school and class without permission.


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