Full Project – IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ QUALIFICATION ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN YOLA, ADAMAWA STATE
1.1 Background to the Study
A qualified and experience teacher is expected to have particular professional and personal competencies. Teachers are very vital in the educational system. They are the ones who interpret the goals of education and ensure that the children are educated in line with them. Since quality of output depends on the quality of input, the success or quantity of any educational system depends on the adequacy of quantity and quality as well as the level of devotion of its teaching workforce.
Academic and pedagogical competencies are included in professional skills. Academic competence refer to a teacher’s topic expertise. Pedagogical competence is the skill of teaching a subject while adhering to certain principles such as teaching from the known to the unknown, the concrete to the abstract, and the basic to the complex. The effectiveness of the teacher in the classroom is highly dependent on his or her readiness for the instructional process. It has been observed that the majority of secondary school teachers are not professional teachers and have not even completed a teacher training program. Occasionally, those who teach chemistry are graduates of pure physical sciences such as chemistry, engineering, or occasionally biochemistry. And, of course, many of these teachers do not hold a degree in education.
Teachers with multiphase background, training and qualification have over the years, dominated the teaching profession in Nigeria. With the emergence of new job opportunities, the teaching profession began to lose the best of its brain. Consequently, those who could not get better job stay on; new entrants use it as a stepping stone, while others who were not trained to teach but have no other job joined the teaching profession (Arisekola, 2007).
Teacher effectiveness hinges on mastery of the subject, ability to impart the subject matter to the learners and to exhibit the indices of educated person so as to achieve educational objectives. The educational objective focuses more on high students’ academic performance, in order for the students to be better individuals and contribute to the development of the nation as a whole (Abdullahi, 2006).
A qualified teacher is that teacher who establishes a pleasant, business like classroom climate, one that elicit students’ responsibilities and co-operation in doing academic work. Such teacher will receive high rating by students on cooperation and work engagement. For the teacher to achieve and maintain high success rates in students, the teacher needs to praise students’ successes, encouraging them to work hard and take responsibility for their academic progress (Adamson, 2004).
Teachers are responsible for student academic performance; hence what really counts in determining the quality of a teacher is the quality of what goes on in the classroom. They should be guided and equipped by sound knowledge or relevant principles so as to cope with classroom situation.
The shabby treatments to teachers have culminated in the drift of some of the few trained teachers to better paid jobs. Teaching job should not be a dumping ground for the frustrated job seekers from other fields of specialization. The situations whereby all sorts of people with diverse qualifications are appointed as teachers have dampened effective teaching. (Okunola,1990).
Many authors have written on teacher’s qualification to enhance academic performance of students. More specifically, the use of qualified teaching staff is a sine qua non in improving student’s academic performance. Ali (2009) observes that there was statistically significant relationship between teacher qualification and student academic achievement. Gravestock & Gregor-Greenleaf (2008) states that the explanations for good or poor student’s academic performance have been quite exhaustive yet controversy still exists among scholars as to what contribute singly or jointly to students’ poor performance. The teacher qualification found to be dominant in cross-country studies are related to; prerequisite, experience, attitude and personality.
Qualified teachers are highly essential for the successful operation of the educational system and constitute an important tool for educational development, and without teachers educational facilities cannot be expanded. Undoubtedly the success and quality of any educational system depends on the quality and quantity of teachers’ input into the system. The teacher therefore interpret the aims and goals of education and educate the learners in accordance with that. No wonder, Hammond (2000) was of the opinion, that states interest in improving pupils’ academic performance should look at the preparation and qualification of the teachers they recruit and retain in the profession.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The teachers’ problem today is not the lack of materials, but how to make the best instructional use of those available to him (Jarolinek 2001). Unfortunately, teaching aids or instructional materials especially with the modern innovation are grossly lacking and faced with a lot of problems in its use by teachers.
It is widely acknowledged that School teaching subject should be concerned towards the learners to understand the complex nature of their society and this should be one of the reasons why it is made a core subject from primary schools to Junior Secondary School Classes. But looking at the alarming rate of moral vice in our society especially in this 21st century, one would say that School teaching subject had not met up to its expectation due to the following specific problems.
Firstly, problem of unqualified School Subject teacher who are handling the subject in our primary schools especially had been perceived to be contributing toward pupils poor academic performance in School Subject. It is one thing for a person to be professionally trained in a particular discipline, example School Subject, it is another thing for the person to have the opportunity to work in that field not other wise. Experience has shown that a qualified School Subject teacher will teach the subject better at all level of education.
Secondly, the fact that less attention is paid to the provision and use of instructional materials was identified to be another problem. The impact of instructional material on teaching and learning process cannot be jeopardized in anyway. A lot of research have been conducted in this regard. The results have proved that schools with adequate instructional materials perform better than those without it instructional material. Oladejo, Olusunde, Ojobisi, and Isoia (2001).
Lastly the failure of teacher training colleges in the production of qualitative manpower has been recognized. These training programmes have been carried out through a crash programme in recent times resulting to mere awarding of certificates without the full acquisition of knowledge by the recipients. This was supported by Adeniyi (2011) who, criticized the education sector for the quality of her products owing to the high level attached to honour and respect given to paper certificates. This attribute has forced they employer of labour to have lost confidence in paper certificates awarded and as such have organized retraining programmes for those who secure appointments in their schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study is being carried out specifically to achieve the following objectives these include:
- To verify the impact of teachers’ qualification on pupils’ performance in School Subject.
- To find out the extent that instructional materials enhance academic performance of pupils in School Subject.
- To identify the level of male and female pupils’ academic performance in School Subject among the selected primary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been carefully formulated in this study for which answers were sought.
- What is the impact of teachers’ qualification on pupils’ academic performance in School Subject in Rugange and Yola Local Government Area?
- To what extent is teachers’ usage of instructional material enhancing academic performance of pupils in School Subject in Rugange and Yola Local Government Area?
- What is the level of male and female pupils’ academic performance in School Subject among the selected schools in the two local Government Areas?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null – hypotheses were tested in this study at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils who were taught by qualified School Subject teachers and those who were taught by unqualified School Subject teacher, in Sabon and Rugange Local Government Area.
Ho2: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils who were taught School Subject using instructional materials and those who were taught the subject without the use of instructional materials.
Ho3: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female pupils who where taught School Subject under the usage of instructional materials, in Rugange and Yola Local Government Areas.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will serve as a guide to know if more qualified and experienced teachers should be recruited as this will aid the use of more material resources that promotes good academic excellent in secondary school.
First, the study will help in improving the standard of education not only to primary school but to all levels of educational system. This is because the study has recognized the importance of teacher and her qualification, measured alongside the instructional material to the success of any educational system. Owing to this, the concerned authorities will need to handle manpower and instructional materials with adequate care, put to proper use and ensure its prompt and regulate supply to school.
Secondly, the relevance of this study can be found in how it will facilitate collaboration between the policy makers and the government execution on policy
formulation and execution relating to the funding, provision, control and management of resources in education. Issues among these are teachers and the instructional materials.
1.7 The scope of the study
The study examines the impact of teachers’ qualification on primary school pupil academic performance in Yola, Adamawa State . This research work covered selected public primary schools in Rugange and Yola Local government Areas of Adamawa state. The subjects for the study comprise teachers and pupil from the two local government, namely: Rugange and Yola L.G.A, Adamawa State.
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Full Project – IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ QUALIFICATION ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN YOLA, ADAMAWA STATE