Full Project – FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFECTIVE LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN YENAGOA
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigerian languages are used as a great deal in the every day lives of the people. They are used in schools market places, in offices, in factories and at school gatherings. Books are published in most of the Nigeria languages and the major languages have newspapers, magazines and comics written in them traditional theatre and musical groups are fund in many parts of the country, entertaining, using the indigenous Nigerian language.
Inspite of the widespread use of indigenous Nigerian language in Nigerian society, no single Nigerian language has yet emerged as the country’s dominant language. This is because no single language is spoken and understood by an over whelming majority of Nigerians. The Nigerian language situation is thus one in which as multiplicity of language co-exist (Bayelsa, Macmillan Nigeria Publishers (1982).
As a result of this multiplicity of languages and consequently tribes and culture there is a problem of which language should be given prominence over the other languages. There have been calls and concerted efforts towards the development and adoption of a common national language, but the question still persists; which language should be given prominence over the other? Over the years one has come to associate the call for a national language some technical jargons in various endeaviours have not been development. Because of the, even when two people from the same language community speed, they are forced to resort to some English words in other to drive home their points (Fullan and Hargreves, 1996)
Based on this multilingual nature of Nigeria English language readily tends to meet some of the conditions which the indigenous languages have failed to meet. English language can be said to be playing a unifying role in Nigeria. It is the only language which Nigerians of diverse linguistic, geographical, social and religious backgrounds have in common. It is used to conduct the various official business of the nation. It is the language of the legislature commerce, the mass media as well as the language of instruction in schools and colleges. This is of course in addition to the indigenous language of the local community. It is to be noted however that English language is the medium of instruction in the senior primary, the secondary school and in tertiary institutions. In these schools the native language or mother-tongue is offered as a school subject.
Speakers of English language fall into three categories. The native speakers; speaker of English as a foreign language and speakers of English as a second language (L2) a speaker of English as a native language acquires English naturally as a young child. This the does usually because his parents use English as their normal means of communication with him and with each other and it is the language used by the community in which he is growing up. It is spoken as a native language in Britain, the united State, Australia, and New Zealand e.t.c.
As a foreign language, English is usually taught as a subject as school or college. A speaker in this situation lives in a country where English is used as a second language (L2). A speaker of English as a second language usually lives in a country where English is not the native language of the indigenous in habitants. However, in his country, English is frequently used as a means of communication between speakers of different native languages. It is the language of education, commerce and politics. These children are often exposed to English before. They learn and use it at school.
Notwithstanding, it has been observed that there are many factors militating against the teaching and learning of English Language in Post primary schools as enumerated by many writers on problem of English Language in Nigeria. They attributed the high level of failures in English Language to lack of students concentration in the classroom, their view steamed from observed students performance in English Language.
Thus, observed failure could be as a result of inability of the students to understand vocabulary terms, lack of finance to buy relevant textbooks, inadequate teachers, inability of the students’ to interpret English Language table and graph, inappropriate and ineffective method of teaching, lack of control over the attitudes of students and teachers and others which have contributed to low level of teaching English Language in secondary schools.
Okorie (1979: 152) suggested that for the effective teaching to take place, the skillful teacher needs to use the many effective method and techniques effectively because in them his success and failure depends. He further emphasized that the success in the use of methods depends on the intelligent analysis of educational purposes, pupil in the class and the curriculum content of the moment.
A few moment reflection is sufficient to reveal that every society faces crucial issues and problem in education which have very serious vocabulary angles that cannot be overlooked easily for instance, the production of education as well as the acquisition of education both require the use of large qualities of scare resources (Production of education requires conducive classrooms, administrative blocks, personnel, librarians, laboratories while the acquisition of education requires expenditures on tuition fees, book, travels, uniform, lodging etc. and students time.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Inspite of the glorious position occupied by English language in Nigeria, the number of people who understand the language is limited. Efforts have to be made to increase the number of people who understand English. The model advocated for is the Standard English which until recently is the model prescribed for Grammar, vocabulary and spelling and the Received Pronunciation (E-P) as the model for pronunciation. This could be taught through the mass media of through schools and colleges. The method of teaching the English language and the problems associated with each shall form the basis of this essay.
The problem associated with the teaching of English language can be classified into instructional and infrastructural problems as well as biases and interferences from the first language (L1). It is to be noted however that there is no single best method of teaching the English language. Language learning does not have to follow the same part whatever the objective and circumstances. The teaching of English language is a praginatic business and should be judge as such. The teacher faced with decisions on the methods and techniques that he has to use and bear in mind the conditions under which he will be working. That is to say that one cannot brand a particular method as good or bad without taking the circumstances in which it is used into consideration. The teacher also has to take into account his own qualities and the characteristics of his pupils and also physical and other conditions in which he has to work.
English Language is been taught in secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State and it has been observed that students in government secondary school Ajah performed poorly in the 2012 May/June Senior Certificate Examination. It has also been observed that there are lots of factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of English Language in secondary schools in the study area.
poor performance in Secondary School Certificate Examination (WAEC) is caused by many factors such as; students ineffective study techniques, quality of teachers and method of teaching, the parents inability to provide useful materials like textbooks, exercise books and school fees and problem of inadequate instructional materials for teaching and learning of English Language in schools.
However, the pivoting problems of English Language is complex and can minimally be solved if the teachers and students change their attitude towards teaching and learning in schools generally and to English Language in particular.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Study has been undertaken with a view to identify the Factors affecting the effective learning of English language in secondary school in Yenagoa. Specifically, the study sought to find out if:-
- Insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects students’ mass failure in English Language subjects.
- Unavailability of instructional materials for teaching of English Language subject affects students’ mass failure in English Language subjects,
iii. The previous socio-vocabulary backgrounds of the students affect them in studying English Language subject.
- The attitude and interest of students towards the nature of English Language subject contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE.
In assessing the purpose of the study, this research project will answer the following questions:
- Does insufficient numbers of qualified English Language teachers affects students’ mass failure in English Language subject?
- Does unavailability of instructional materials for teaching of English Language subject affects students’ mass failure in English Language subjects?
iii. Does previous socio-vocabulary background of the students affect them in studying English Language subject?
- How would interest of students towards the nature of English Language subject contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE?
In carrying out this research work the following theoretical statements are buttressed to serve as a direction on which the work will be premised:
- H0: Insufficient numbers of qualified English Language teachers does not affects students’ mass failure of students in English Language subject
H1: Insufficient numbers of qualified English Language teachers and instructional materials teaching affects English Language subject.
- H0: There is no significant relationship between availability of instructional materials for teaching of English Language subject and students’ mass failure in English Language subjects.
H1: There is significant relationship between availability of instructional materials for teaching of English Language subject and students’ mass failure in English Language subjects.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research work seeks to examine the Factors affecting the effective learning of English language in secondary school in Yenagoa. The study will be limited to five selected schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa.
1.7 Significance of the Study
There is need to apply knowledge from English Language to many area of our life in other to benefit the society. The achievements of the objective necessitates an understanding of the basic teaching of English Language. We cannot attain national objectives in the light of poor or average performances in examinations and lack of application of English Language to life students.
Without doubt, improved teaching and learning of English Language will spur us into greater heights. This study will help to make our educational administrators to see the need to have qualified English Language teachers to handle the subject effectively for the benefit of the students and society at large.
This study will help to sensitize the educational administrators to appreciate the need to make available the necessary materials, example, chalkboard, graphs, audio-visual materials etc. that will enhance effective learning of English Language if they are not available.
This study will if need be direct the English Language teachers’ attention to the need for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the above mentioned desirable experience in the learners. This study will have a great significance because it is going to provide information to English Language teachers for formation and evaluation of their plans.
It will be useful to learners for through this, they will be able to identify the factors militating against the proper teaching and learning of English Language. This study will help to produce sound English Language students that will function very well in the economy such as:
(a) Knowing how to use scarce productive resources with alternative uses to meet prescribed ends and be able to apply the principles of English Language.
(b) The product of English Language that should be able to pick employment within a limited employment opportunity in any economy.
This work will serve as a source of encouragement to students and teachers that will come across it. It is hoped that the findings of this study would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on this issue.
1.8 Definition of Terms
English Language: English is the language of education in Nigeria. It is the language of instruction from upper primary education, through secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria.
Instructional Materials: These are materials that are used to aid in the transference of information from one student to another in Education arena.
Teaching: the act or profession of a person who teaches.
Job Performance: This is the work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed.
Remuneration: Reward for employment in the form of pay, salary, or wage, including allowances, benefits (such as medical plan, pension plan), bonuses, cash incentives, and monetary value of the noncash incentives.
Condition of Work: Regulations governing on-the-job standards and conditions of work such as those affecting health and safety of workers.
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Full Project – FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFECTIVE LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN YENAGOA