Full Project – Evaluation of the effect of temperature on shape in drying performance of cassava chips

Full Project – Evaluation of the effect of temperature on shape in drying performance of cassava chips

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1.1 Background of the study

Cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantz) is one of the most important staple foods in the world along with rice, wheat and maize (IFAD, 2000). Cassava is one of the most important economic crops in Thailand for domestic use as cassava flour, animal feed or feedstock for bioethanol production, and also for export and it is grown by small-scale farmer’s right up to business owner factories which are usually located within the cultivating area (Piyachomkwan and Tanticharoen, 2011). Ospina and Wheatly (1992) and Udoroet.,al (2008) have described various aspects of processing cassava and this is summarized below. After cassava roots are harvested, they are either loaded into the chopping machine or cut into small pieces manually by farmers. Drying techniques vary among farmers and range from sun drying to artificial hot-air or oven drying. Drying allows safe storage of cassava chips over a long period by reducing the biological degradation rate of raw cassava chips. It also results in a considerable reduction in weight and volume, which helps minimize packaging, storage and transportation costs. Currently, sun drying involves spreading out fresh cassava chips on a cement floor and turning them over with a shovel or rake; it is still the most widely used method in the cassava chip industry. Quality and the drying time of cassava chips in the sun64 drying process are influenced by the chips’ geometry and the weather conditions. Despite the cost of the oven drying, it is more efficient than the conventional sun-drying due to the control over the drying atmosphere and better control of quality to reduce contamination. The rate of drying depends on the chip size, loading density and initial 67 moistures. The air temperature for the production of cassava chips in oven drying is in the range 45–165°C (Udoroet.,al 2008). Therefore, oven drying of cassava chips is highly recommended. In order to obtain a sellable product, dried cassava chips should pass the following criteria: starch content (68–70% minimum), final moisture content (14–17%), fiber content (5% maximum) and sand content (3% maximum).

Most of the tuber and root crops do not store well in the fresh form and storage potentials of tubers and root crops also vary. Thus the processing into staple non-perishable and easily transportable products such as flour, chips etc, reduce its perishability. Cassava can be processed into cassava flour, garri and peels can be used as a source of feed to some class of animals. It is also used to produce ethanol and glucose. Cassava meal from dried root chips has been exported for animal feed purpose (IITA, 1996). Cassava chips help to reduce the volume –to-weight ratio which helps to lower shipping or transportation costs.

The cultivation of cassava requires minimal input, but the processing of cassava roots is laborious and time consuming (Lancester et al., 1982). Production of cassava chips include the following processing steps peeling, washing, soaking or boiling, chipping, drying and packaging. The quality of the dried chips produced is determined mainly in the drying stage. Undesirable biochemical changes and subsequent contamination and spoilage of the chips can only be prevented if the drying process is fast enough and the final product is dry enough (Maskan,2000). Heat application to food during drying helpsto achieve this. Though sun drying is the common method of drying of cassava in the tropics, it has a main disadvantage of slowness of the drying process due to ambient temperature that is used for dying. There is the need for alternative drying methods that will dry the product faster. Hot-air drying which has an extra advantage of providing uniformity of drying (Minguez-Mosquera et al., 1994; Ayensu 1997; Tiris et al, 1994) has been investigated. Product pretreatment has also been considered as a way to accelerate drying (Del Valle et al., 1998; Kudra, 2004).

Drying processes play an important role in the preservation of agricultural products. They are defined as a process of moisture removal due to simultaneous heat and mass transfer (Ertekin, C. and Yaldiz, O., 2004). The most important reasons for the popularity of dried products are longer shelf-life, product diversity as well as substantial volume reduction. This could be expanded further with improvements in product quality and process applications. The application of dryers in developing countries, especially in Thailand, reduce losses and significantly improve the quality of the dried product when compared to the traditional means of drying such as open sun drying. Not only that, open sun drying is not always suited to large-scale production due to the lack of ability to control the drying conditions properly, the longer drying time, the uncertainties of ambient conditions. larse area requirements, insect infestation and the contamination of dust (Togrul, I. T. and Pehlivan, D., 2004).

1.2 Statement of the problems

The conditions under which cassava is handled enable mould growth to occur leading to discolouration and changes in flavour (Knoth, 1993). During rainy season, when traditional sun drying methods are used, it takes long to dry the chips, leading to contamination and discolouration of the chips as well as formation of noxious odours and off-flavours that are unacceptable to the consumer (FAO, 2010). In cases where fermentation is used as method of processing, there are risks of contamination of the cassava chips by pathogens through the water that may he used while the sun-dried cassava is also of low quality and is often unsuitable for the production of high value products such as cassava flour (Jensen et al., 1999).

Due to poor quality and safety’ of traditionally sundried cassava products, improved drying methods for cassava, which reduce the duration of the drying period and ensure optimal cyanide detoxification, would be of great advantage.


1.3 Aim and Objectives

1.3.1 Aim of the study

To evaluate the effect of temperature on shape in drying performance of cassava chips.

1.3.2 Objectives

  1. To investigate the drying behaviour of cassava chips using two different cutting shapes
  2. To evaluate the performance of the drying cassava chips under different dimension.

1.4 Significance of the study

The vision for cassava production is to support rural industrial development, to raise income for producers, processors and traders. While contributing to the national food security, by a shift from cassava as principally a subsistence food crop to an industrial crop for export trade. One of the approach to achieve this goal is to have a technology that will address the cassava processing like in the case of drying method. Considering the importance of cassava as a staple crop in developing countries it is essential to optimize the drying process and minimizing energy inputs and costs during drying.


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Full Project – Evaluation of the effect of temperature on shape in drying performance of cassava chips