Full Project – Evaluation of guidance and counselling services in selected secondary schools
1.1. Background to the Study
As individuals develop through stages of life and educational attainment, they encounter problems, challenges and conflict situations. These individuals also need to develop value systems, make decisions, set goals and work towards them. All these cannot be achieved without self-understanding and decision-making skills, which are not innate, but need to be developed. The need to address these challenges and to promote educational success and healthy life therefore, call for exposure to guidance and counselling programs by individuals/students. The focus of guidance and counselling in school is to address the needs and concerns of students or learners at different levels of academic or educational development. Braddock (2001), states that the purpose of guidance and counselling in schools is to improve academic achievement, foster positive study attitudes and habit, increase acquisitions and application of conflict resolution skills and decrease school dropouts. When guidance and counselling services are provided they help prepare students to assume increasing responsibility for their decisions and grow in their ability to understand and accept the results of their choices (Kauchak, 2011).
The need to institute counselling programmes in secondary schools cannot be over emphasized. Traditionally, guidance entails activities designed to induce positive functionalities into abilities, interest, attitudes, aptitudes, and at the same time, turn around weaknesses. Guidance traditionally involves provision of direction or advice as in a decision or course of action, showing the way; setting and helping to drive, lead, assist, pilot and steer ideals into individuals by counselling professionals to enhance the achievement of goals. The need for people to live functional and meaningful lives makes it imperative that guidance and counselling programmes be established.
The school is basically established for instruction and learning, to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in schools it is important that the necessary facilities are put in place. When guidance and counselling services are missing in schools, students’ adaptation becomes difficult thus leading to low performance, misbehaviour and dropout. According to Odeke (1996), without sound guidance and counselling, many students loose direction and engage themselves in bad behaviours such as drug abuse and alcohol indulgence, missing classes, dropout and so on; as a result they lack both focus and direction resulting to total failure in life.
According to Karega (2008), learning in secondary schools is often interrupted by the deviant behavioural patterns of the adolescents. Dryafol (2002) pointed out that secondary school students carry along with them a host of adolescent challenges. They are highly influenced by technological change and transformation. Also, the high school students experience erratic physiological changes resulting to unpredictable mood swings, social development and changes that are evident (Conger & Peterson, 1984). Sindabi (1992) postulates, that young people in secondary schools undergo emotional development, manifesting characteristics of being erratic, irritable, unpredictable, ambivalent, critical and rebellious.
Government of Nigeria have tried in various ways to improve the quality of education in the country by introducing various policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education” published in 1997, revised in 1981 and 1990. In 1977, a policy on education evolved which was national and presumably indigenous, which was later revised in 1981, 1988 and recently in 2004. In it, a specific paragraph proposed the need of providing guidance and counselling services in Nigerian Secondary Schools. The policy clearly states in section eleven (11) paragraph 101, item (j) that:
In view of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects, and in view of the personality maladjustment among schoolchildren, career officers and counsellors will be appointed in post primary institutions. Since qualified personnel in this category are scarce, government will continue to make provisions for the training of interested teachers in guidance and counselling and counselling will feature in teacher education programmes. Proprietors of schools shall provide guidance counsellors in adequate numbers in each primary and post primary school.
The National Council on Education made a recommendation for the production of a policy document in form of blueprint. As a result, the Federal Ministry of Education printed the first edition of ‘Blueprint on Guidance and Counselling for Institutions in Nigeria’ in July 2000, and reprinted it in August 2001. The essence of the Blueprint is to serve as guidance, a working document sequentially arranged to reflect the counselling needs of Nigerian students and clients at different levels of education. The Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) has also made similar effort to complement practitioners, and help beneficiaries to derive maximum benefits. The blueprint is made up of thirteen sections: guidance and counselling for pre-primary, primary, nomadic education, junior and senior secondary education, vocational and technical education, adult and non-formal education, special education, counselling for the gifted children, counselling for rehabilitation, administration of guidance services, funding, and research and evaluation on guidance and counselling. Each aspect outlined the rationale, objectives, scope, activities and strategies of operation.
For guidance to be meaningful, it, must be seen as a series of programmed activities which help the normal school child to know himself/herself as an individual, become more aware of his/her person. Hence, guidance and counselling play a vital role. The most important outcome of a guidance program is desirable change in the behaviour of students, such as improved school attendance, better study habits, better scholastic achievement, fewer scholastic failures, lower drop-out rate, better educational planning, and better home-school relations. Effective guidance and counselling programs balance corrective, preventive and developmental functions.
Thus this study evaluates guidance and counselling services in selected secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
The personal and social development of young people has become the responsibility of schools so much so that today, schools require a more formal and explicit structure of responsibilities. According to Kipnusu (2002), the role of the school and that of the teachers has been expanding as the society becomes more diversified. With the crumbling of traditional family unit and ever decreasing time that modern parents are spending with their children, much responsibility has been placed on the teacher. The implication of this is that teachers are today required to take on more responsibilities that are more concerned with the social welfare of the 1eaners with merely classroom instruction (Pring, 1984). It is imperative that schools have well established and functional Guidance and Counselling units.
Most schools in Nigeria run programmes that are deficient in diversification to cater for all career choice of students. In these schools, most of the students are lefty unguided either because their schools have no guidance and counselling services or the nature is not up to standard. To make Guidance and Counselling units in schools more effective, continuous evaluation is required for further improvement. Like any other educational programme, the Guidance and Counselling units must be guided by set objectives. Education being a purposeful activity requires that goals of all educational programmes be stated clearly to enable those concerned act within a specified framework. Educational policy statements ought to be clear in order to be able to fit tightly to the actual practices in the field of education.
Every country endeavours to provide quality education for its people, the future of such nation depends largely on it. The educational system of Nigeria is still faced with a lot of problems. Studies have shown that a strong link exist between school facilities and academic performance. The Federal Government of Nigeria, in its National Policy on Education (2004), has mandated every state to include guidance and counselling programs in the school curriculum. Yet one wonders with dismay the slackness with which secondary schools in Maiduguri has taken the implementation of this important education policy. A situation whereby students are not having access to guidance and counselling becomes a problem to the students, teachers, educationist and even parents. From the above discussion, it is evident that the existence of Guidance and Counselling units in schools is not enough.
A number of scholars have highlighted the benefits of evaluating school guidance services. Despite the relevance of evaluation, very few studies have been conducted in the Nigeria to ascertain the extent to which guidance and counselling services are effectively implemented. Although, findings of many studies, such as Ondima, Mokogi, Ombaba & Osoro (2013), and Modo, Sanni, Uwah, & Mogbo, (2013), on guidance and counselling services revealed that that school guidance and counselling programme was perceived to be effective in enhancing students’ academic, career and personal competencies, however, these studies are outdated.
Although guidance and counselling is offered among secondary schools in Maiduguri Borno state, its effect on shaping behaviour among students is not known. It is against this background that the researcher considered studying the nature of guidance and counselling services in secondary schools in Maiduguri Borno state.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The aim of this study was to investigate the need for guidance and counselling services among Nigeria University students. The specific objectives are to:
- ascertain the level of provision of guidance and counselling service in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state.
- establish the types of guidance and counselling service offered in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state.
- examine the extent of the influence of assessing guidance and counselling service on student school life and attitude towards studies in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state.
- establish the relationship between guidance and counselling service and students’ performance in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state.
1.4. Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions:
- What is the level of provision of guidance and counselling service in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state?
- What are the types of guidance and counselling service offered in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state?
- To what extent does assess to guidance and counselling service influence student school life and attitude towards studies in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state?
- Is there any relationship between guidance and counselling service and students’ performance in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The study is guided by this hypothesis:
- H0: Assess to guidance and counselling service does not influence student school
life and attitude towards studies in secondary schools of Maiduguri,
- H0: There is no relationship between guidance and counselling service and students’
performance in secondary schools of Maiduguri, Borno state.
- Justification of the Study
The effectiveness of high academic performance critically depends on a proper understanding of guidance and counselling services. The significance of guidance and counselling services in addressing educational challenges had led to a wide range of research on the effectiveness of guidance and counselling service on educational institutions. The purposed have been to empirically justify the appropriateness of the existing service at any point in time.
This study provides a clear, sound and functional understanding of guidance and counselling services in Nigeria and this could help policy makers in the country to interpret with relative precision, the effect on educational system. The outcome of study also revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the various types of guidance and counselling services that have been adopted by educational institutions in Nigeria over the years, to address academic challenges in schools.
In addition, the study provides a link of causation between guidance and counselling services and student academic performance. This is very crucial given that the educational sector is important to Nigeria.
Furthermore, the study emphasized the need for appropriate techniques and emphasis to be placed to the most optimal method of guidance and counselling service when addressing students.
1.7. Significance of the Study
The critical nature of student performance in particular and the educational sector in general to the success or growth of any economy is given, this is because the level of student performance determines the level of manpower produced in a country. Empirically, this study is carried out to investigate the nature of guidance and counselling services in secondary schools so as to ameliorate the problems associated with the educational system. This study will be important to the academic sector of the nation, as it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can operate and how it should operate. It will teach it the importance of guidance and counselling in schools.
This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in educational sector. It is hoped that the exploration of the Nigerian university will provide a broad view of the operations of the educational system to investors and government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role of guidance and counselling on academic successes. This study will be of benefit to;
The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.
Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the educational sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on these findings would ensure development in the sector.
Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.
This study at the end will enlighten the board of educational sector on the implications of guidance and counselling.
Moreover, the recommendations of the study if strictly adhered to will improve guidance and counselling exercise in secondary schools as well as contribute to the formulation of policies on guidance and counselling service. Finally, the findings of the study if implemented, will greatly inspire the administration and control of the educational sector to provide adequate mechanism to resolve the problems of low performance in the Nigerian educational institutions. This is because evidence has shown that effective guidance and counselling services is associated to increased academic performance performance, which in turn boost socio-economic and political development.
1.8. Scope of the Study
In evaluation of guidance and counselling services in selected secondary schools in Maiduguri state, the scope of the study was restricted to the use of Pearson correlation technique. The types of guidance and counselling services that were discussed and analyzed include academic issues, discipline, among others.
1.9. Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined operationally.
- Guidance: is a process, developmental in nature by which an individual is assisted to understand, accept and utilize his abilities, aptitudes interest and altitudinal patterns in relation to his aspirations. Here, it implies guidance services provided by secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state.
- Counselling: is an interactional process meant to enhance redefinition of stand for positive adjustment on particular issues of life. Here, it implies counselling services provided by secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state.
- School: is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students. Here it implies selected secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state.
- Facility: a place, amenity or piece of equipment provided for a particular purpose. Here it implies guidance and counselling facilities provided by secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state.
- Academic performance: is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution attained their short or long-term educational goals. Here it implies academic performance of secondary school students in Maiduguri, Borno state.
1.10. Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument. Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.
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Full Project – Evaluation of guidance and counselling services in selected secondary schools