Full Project – Employee voice and organizational performance in the private sector
1.1 Background of the Study
Academics are interested in employee voice since it is a topic of enormous relevance to many Human Resource Practitioners. It’s an issue that’s sparked a lot of debate among firms that aren’t doing well. Many academics feel that one of the key contributing causes to low productivity in a variety of firms is management’s disregard for employee input or recommendations. The way management and employees interact has an impact on many aspects of the workplace. Employee voice in connection to organizational performance has been established as a categorization of these interactions in terms of the project.
As defined by Boxall and Purcell (2003): ‘Employee voice is the term increasingly used to cover a whole variety of processes and structures which enable, and sometimes empower employees, directly and indirectly, to contribute to decision-making in the firm.’ Employee voice can be seen as ‘the ability of employees to influence the actions of the employer’ (Millward et al, 2019). The concept covers the provision of opportunities for employees to register discontent, express complaints or grievances and modify the power of management, and sometimes brings collective and individual techniques into one framework. Direct employee voice involves contacts between management and employees without the involvement of trade unions. Union voice is expressed through representatives and can be power-based.
According to Hirschman (2019), the phrase “employee voice” has a long history in academic literature, reaching back to the 1970s, when it was first used to describe employees’ attempts to modify unsatisfactory work arrangements. In terms of departure and voice, this was an emphasis on decreasing businesses and employees.
According to Wilkinson et al. (2014), the term ‘voice’ was popularized by Freeman and Medoff (2017), who claimed that having a ‘voice’ mechanism made sense for both the firm and the workers. Spencer (2015) expanded on this issue, concluding that allowing employees to express their unhappiness improved the chance of their staying with the company. The management literature, according to Van Dyne et al. (2016), has two basic conceptualizations. The first approach describes speaking up behaviour such as when employees proactively make suggestions for change. The second uses the term to describe procedures that enhance justice judgments and facilitate employee participation in decision making. This implies both informal and formal mechanisms are required, though little attention has been given in the literature to an open organizational culture that accepts and promotes voice in these ways. Summarizing the literature, Van Dyne et al (2016) conclude that the term voice is used to “represent the intentional expression of work-related ideas, information, and opinions”.
Budd et al., (2010) argue that there is now a renaissance in interest in participation, based on economic (generation of higher levels of performance in the post mass production era), moral/ethic and pragmatic grounds. Budd explores different dimensions of voice and argues that voice is dependent upon employees being well informed. Employees can only use their voice effectively if their ideas and suggestions are based upon a strong understanding of what is happening in the organization. This leads on to the concept of informed employee voice, which in turn, can potentially contribute to higher levels of employee participation in decision-making in organization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
While there are contributions in the areas of employee voice in connection to organizational performance, employees in the private sector are seen to be inadequate in their desire to openly express their views on matters relevant to their companies to a great extent. As a result, recent performance in such private sector firms has been jeopardized. Most workers have lost their jobs as a result of employees speaking up at work, and some have been subjected to fear of victimization, diminished initiatives, and the practice of keeping key, valuable organizational knowledge to themselves, to the detriment of their company. Employee voice and organizational performance in private sector in Rivers State was chosen as a research topic by the researchers.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between employee voice and organizational performance, a study of Dufil Prima Food Limited. The specific objectives are:
- To establish the relationship between employees involvement and organizational performance.
- To determine the relationship between collective union and organization performance.
- To ascertain the relationship between other representative and organizational performance.
1.5 Research Questions
- What is the relationship between employee involvement and organizational performance?
- What is the relationship between collective union and organizational performance
- What is the relationship between other representative and organizational performance
1.6 Research Hypotheses
H01: There is no significant relationship between employee involvement organizational performance.
H02: There is no significant relationship between collective union and organizational performance.
H03: There is no significant relationship between other representative and organizational performance
1.7 Significance of the Study
The perceived significance of this study is based on the relationship between employees’ voice and organizational performance. The research aims at enhancing employees’ voice to improve organizational policy planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Moreover, the interpersonal relationship between management and employees will improve organizational performance thereby enhancing employee involvement, participation, engagement and also employees’ infuse their knowledge, skills, ability and experience to the advantage of Dufil Prima Foods Plc.
The findings of this research can improve and add to existing knowledge and serve as source of reference to the management of private sector organizations and researchers for an informed policy making and recommendation regarding similar research in future.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The Content Scope: This study focused on examining the relationship between employee voice and organizational performance. Literatures on both concepts and dimensions were reviewed.
The Geographical Scope: This scope covered Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
Unit of Analysis: The unit of analysis is at macro level (the individual employees of Dufil Prima Foods Plc).
1.9 Limitation of the Study
Paucity of Fund: Lack of finance is one of the major limitations of this study and the demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey.
Time Constraints: Again, limited time to cover extensive literature available in conducting this research was not available.
Lack of Information: Lack of reliable Information from the respondents was one of the limitations of the study.
Covid-19 Protocols and Guidelines: This is the era of pandemic that has negatively impacted on the lives and businesses such as Dufil Prima Foods Plc. Protocols adherence was a big challenge to the researcher as to gain access to conduct a questionnaire.
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
Employee Voice: refers to the say employees have in matters of concern to them in their organization.
Employee Involvement: The direct participation of staff to help an organization fulfill its mission and meet its objectives by applying their own ideas, expertise, and efforts towards solving problems and making decisions
Partnership Agreement: It is referred as a contract between two or more business partners. The partners use the agreement to outline their rights responsibilities, and profit and loss distribution.
Organizational Performance: refers to a group ‘of individual working in a particular place for the achievement of a set of assigned tasks or goal that are anchored to ‘him, with a result indicator that would measure the accomplishment level of the organizational goal.
Teamwork: Teamwork involves a set of tasks and activities performed by individuals who collaborate with each other to achieve a common objective.
Performance: this refers to the ability of producing a desired result to the purpose of its operation.
1.11 Organizational Profile of Dufil Prima Foods Plc Choba
The Dufil Prima Foods Plc was incorporated in 2001 as a private limited liability company at Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Upon completion of a restructuring exercise the company was converted to Public limited company and became the holding company of the group in year 2008.The existence of the Facility arises due to the growing demand for the product from the consumers of the region and the nation.
Dufil Prima Foods Plc comprises six subsidiaries – namely: De united Foods Industries Limited (Nigeria & Ghana), Northern Noodles Limited, Pure Flour Mills Limited, Insignia Print Technology Lftz Enterprise and Raffles Oil Lftz Enterprise. De United Foods Industries Limited, Noodle Division, started its operation in year 1996 at Ota, Ogun State, is the first instant noodles manufacturing plant in Nigeria and the largest in Africa at that time. The company started with staff strength of about 500 but today it has over 1500 staff members working effectively and efficiently toward one common goal; to satisfy its customers by continuously offering a variety of nutritious, healthy and quality products. The objective is to provide fresh and quality product to the consumers. De United Foods is a Corporate Member of the Nigerian Institute Of Food Science And Technology (NIFST). It has it Corporate Office located at Dufil Prima Foods Plc 38, Eric Moore Road, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria. With operational base located at 68B, Uniport Road, Choba, Port Harcourt, Obio Akpor, Rivers, Nigeria.
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Full Project – Employee voice and organizational performance in the private sector