Full Project – EFFECTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODOLOGY ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is on Effects of teaching and learning methodology on students’ academic achievement. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Akure local government of Ondo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals,vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal&Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic achivement by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered. As an educator, the researcher has always been fascinated by the relationship between teaching methods and students’ academic achivement; especially when it comes to applications in the context of 21st century education. It seems that there is something in teaching that opens the gate of learning. It is true that successful learning depends on various factors that are not all teacher-related, but the methods that a teacher uses continue to play an important role in student learning and in their academic achievement. The challenges that educators face in the 21st century are so diverse that using better teaching methods is more crucial now than ever before. Gibbs and Jenkins (1992) bring the argument that the context of class and society has changed, but the teaching methods have remained unchanged. Various recent studies attempting to address the issues that affect teaching methods and student learning today include educational technology integration (Abbitt, 2011), teachers’ roles (Webb, 2009), the class environment (Doll et al., 2010), understanding the adult learner (Kisamore, Aldridge, Alexander, & White, 2008), length of the class session (Coskun, 2011), increasing class size in schools (Gibbs & Jenkins, 1992), students’ attitudes (Akkuzu&Akcay, 2011), as well as the increased interdependence of society today (Schul, 2011).
Studies on teaching methods are not something new in educational research. A large number of studies have been done on this area. Pascarella and Trenzini (2005) have written a compendium of research studies conducted in this area over the past three decades. Even before that, Feldman and Newcomb (1973) mentioned decades of similar research studies in the area of teaching methods. These show both increased interest and knowledge in the area of teaching strategies and learning theories. Svinicki (2000) suggests that these studies on teaching methods conducted in the past decades are so overwhelming that it would be impossible to go over them all in detail. For many decades, the search for better teaching methods to provide the best learning has been the goal of education. However, teaching method is not a one-size-fits-all proposition. Flexibility is crucial in adapting teaching methods in the class. Since all teachers are different, the strategies they use, and the way they use them will depend on the context and situation of their class (McCornac&PhanThuy, 2005), as well as their own personality and biases. The effect of teaching methods on students’ learning should be the interest of every teacher and student. In the field of education, there have been various studies done in an attempt to measure teaching methods. Robinson and colleagues (1990) conducted a case study on several teaching methods in schools to explore the reasons for their use, and perceptions of effectiveness. The result of their study suggested that various methods do influence teaching effectiveness. According to Keene (2008), each student learns best using strategies and objectives that reflect his experiences, abilities, aptitudes and interest. Similarly, there is no standard teaching method. The various teaching methods overlap in definition and application; none being mutually exclusive although researchers often delineate several teaching strategies. Demonstration technique is one of the many teaching learning style under the investigative or activity based. It is a method which is capable of improving learning through its diversity effect activity. It has the prerequisite characteristics for individualized instruction and therefore has high potential for making teaching-learning process challenging and rewarding. There is a radical departure from the direct teaching model in which the teacher engages student to learn. Students are encouraged to ask questions. In short, the student is viewed as an inquirer, a seeker of information and a problem-solver. These attributes are crucial to problem-solving and are at the heart of demonstration model of teaching. Consequently, there is now a growing concern for the use of demonstration technique in the teaching of Government in Nigerian secondary schools.
In recent times, much research attention has been focused on teaching of government in Nigerian Secondary Schools with a view to ascertaining the adequacy and appropriateness of the teachers’ method of teaching and indeed the effectiveness of instruction. Investigation into the use of demonstration instructional technique in the teaching of government in Nigerian Secondary Schools seem to have focused mainly on teachers’ frequency of the use of this technique and sparingly on the application of important variables influencing its effective use. In a sense, no research attention has yet been paid to the effectiveness of teaching government using demonstration technique. The use of demonstration instructional technique as an innovative instructional practice can only be effectively implemented if the teachers possess the appropriate knowledge, skills and abilities related to its use in the classroom situation. Competence is learnt attitudes and aptitudes shown as capacities for controlling, actively struggling with and mastering life problems through the use of cognitive, social and scientific skills. Thus, as a learnt characteristic, the amount of it possessed by individuals can be measured and development through appropriate and constant involvements in activities. Skills for the demonstration technique of government consist of the teachers’ awareness and understanding of the issues surrounding demonstration teaching. These include knowledge of questioning, identification of events that are suited to demonstration. Others are how to demonstrate curiosity and independent thoughts in students (Brown, 1999). They also include ability to elicit students’ questions (Kona, 2000). The present concern for Nigerian government teachers with regard to acquisition of these qualities is born out of the fear that since most of these teachers have been used to expository teaching approach and considering the existing inadequacies in teacher education in Nigeria, their awareness, equipment, orientation and willingness to embrace and effectively use the demonstration technique as a mode of teaching are bound to be questionable. This activity technique is at times misconstrued and hence wrongly applied.
This paper attempts to elucidate the concept of activity vis-à-vis demonstration method of teaching, and empirically establish its effectiveness on SS 2 students’ achievement in Secondary School
The discussion method has been widely accepted and recommended by some educators as the good method of teaching in secondary schools (Phipps & Osborne, 1988). The discussion method is the method of teaching where the central and essential characteristic is interaction (Binkley and Tulloch, 1981). During discussion session students participate in the learning process by contributing problems, analyzing the factors associated with the problems, developing possible solutions to the problems, placing the solution(s) into action, and evaluating the results of the solution.
Nowak, Watt and Walther (2004), articulated this position and present evidence that, demonstration method is generally effective in teaching sciences, mathematics and mechanics as well as subject areas within vocational and technical education. As stated by Gokhale (1996), the professional success of a technologist is directly related to his/her ability to transfer knowledge gained in the academic environment to real-world situations. Much student learning occurs through observing others. A demonstration provides the link between “knowing about” and “being able to do.” Research reveals that demonstrations are most effective when they are accurate, when learners are able to see clearly and understand what is going on, and when brief explanations occur during the demonstration (Saskatchewan, 1988). Since good teaching among other factors play significant role in enhancing performance, this study attempted to find out which method of instruction better facilitate learning in secondary schools by beaming light on the different methods of teaching in secondary schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
One of the main problems with teaching methods in secondary schools is the lack of individualized instruction. Many classrooms have a large number of students, making it challenging for teachers to cater to the specific needs and learning styles of each student. This one-size-fits-all approach can lead to students feeling disengaged and struggling to grasp the concepts being taught. As a result, their academic achivement may suffer.
Another issue is the overemphasis on rote memorization and standardized testing. In many secondary schools, the focus is primarily on memorizing facts and regurgitating them during exams. This approach does not encourage critical thinking, problem-solving, or creativity, which are essential skills for success in the real world. Consequently, students may struggle to apply their knowledge in practical situations, leading to lower academic achivement.
Lack of practical application and hands-on learning opportunities is also a significant problem in teaching methods. Many secondary schools rely heavily on theoretical instruction, neglecting the importance of practical learning experiences. Without opportunities to apply their knowledge in real-life situations, students may struggle to understand the relevance of what they are learning, resulting in lower academic achivement.
Insufficient teacher training and professional development can also hinder effective teaching methods. Teachers need to stay updated with the latest educational research, teaching techniques, and technology advancements to provide quality instruction. However, limited access to training and professional development opportunities can prevent teachers from implementing innovative and effective teaching methods, negatively impacting students’ academic achivement.
The lack of student engagement and motivation is a significant problem associated with teaching methods in secondary schools. Traditional teaching methods often fail to capture students’ interest and make learning enjoyable. When students are not engaged or motivated, they are less likely to actively participate in class, ask questions, or seek help when needed. This lack of engagement can lead to poor academic achivement and hinder overall learning outcomes (Dyer, 1995).
Though teachers with high morale, motivation and a mastery of knowledge, learner difficulties and capacity to facilitate learning are important (Zadra, 2000), correct use of an appropriate teaching method is critical to successful teaching and learning. Knowledge of how teaching methods affect students’ learning may help educators to select methods that improve teaching quality, effectiveness, and accountability to learners and the public. It may also help them keep up with information technology, globalization and to avoid the status quo (Foster, Pinkest and Husman, 1991).
Organizing for effective teaching in vocational education is centered on certain factors such as what to teach, when to teach and how to teach. The teacher does not only teach the most relevant, meaningful and useful materials for specific students, he must also recognize and adopt a good and well-researched method of teaching that guarantees better understanding and also stimulates and motivate the students. Several methods of instruction have been employed for students’ interest depending on the situation. Varying factors ranging from socio-economic background, intelligence, attitude of students to teaching methods employed by teachers have been attributed to this poor achievement. Tawari (1986) observed that teaching methods that encourages students centered activities for developing reasoning and process slides through scientific approach are conspicuously lacking. For effective teaching to take place, the teacher must stimulate, encourage and maintain active participation of the students, through the selection of appropriate teaching methods. This would require a balance between what is taught and how it is taught. Thus, successful teaching in vocational education does not depend only on the teachers’ mastery of the subject matter but also the teaching method employed. Hence, Ogbonna (2000) opines that one of the most influential factors in teaching is the teacher’s method of teaching.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To assess the relationship between the use of discussion method and academic achivement of students.
- To examine the relationship between the use of demonstration method and academic achivement of students
- To ascertain the relationship between the use of lecture method and academic achivement of students
- To determine the relationship between the use of questioning method and the academic achivement of students.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: There is no significant relationship between discussion method and student academic achivement
H1: There is significant relationship between discussion method and student academic achivement
H02: There is no significant relationship between demonstration method and student academic achivement
H2: There is significant relationship between demonstration method and student academic achivement
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study may be considered significant in a number of ways: it will help to increase the teachers’ level of awareness and understanding of the use of most of the instructional technique. Findings may also provide the teachers with a feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching methods as a basis for improvement in their instructional practice so that they can enhance performance. Curriculum planners and educators as well as government and educational administrators need empirical data on the overall teaching method and activity teaching competence of government teachers in Senior Secondary Schools to facilitate proper curricular policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study examines Effects of teaching and learning methodology on students’ academic achievement. The focus of this research is on the effect of activity techniques (i.e. discussion, demonstration, lecture and questioning approach) of teaching on Senior Secondary School Students performance in government. The educational level of focus is SS 2 students. It is believed that these groups of students have been exposed to the knowledge, attitude and skills of the subject. The work covers performance using all the commonly used method of teaching .The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this study, it is imperative to define the terms that will be appearing during the course of this work as they are used within the context of the study for clarification purposes.
- Activity: This is student-centered teaching-learning approach, where the student has some control over the process and directs more or less the instructional activities with the teacher providing adequate guidance.
- Teaching method: It is a teaching device or strategy adopted by a teacher to teach a lesson, this includes the use of games, text books etc. that stimulates learning.
- Academic achivement: Learning outcome or output in students taught government which results from teaching techniques/methods the teacher adopts.
- Effect: Outcome of result of using appropriate teaching method on students as measured by government performance test.
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Full Project – EFFECTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODOLOGY ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT