Full Project – Effects of demonstration method on the academic achievement of SS3 students in biology in some selected secondary schools
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The level of education has increase overtime with demonstration method in most secondary schools today in Nigeria. Over the years, there have being an increased rate of poor performance in biology due to inexperienced teachers and the unavailability of instructional materials to demonstrate before the students while teaching subject like biology. This effect is mostly noticed in most of the village schools; maybe due to lack of infrastructural development and finances to run the activities of the schools.
Take Gusau local government for instance as a case study; Gusau local government is the capital of Zamfara state with limited resources and poor infrastructure such as good schools, hospitals etc.
The federal Republic of Nigeria (1998) refers to secondary education as the education given in institutions for children aged 11 to 16 years old. Its further stresses that since the tertiary education system is built upon it, the secondary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole national educational system. In other words, the secondary education is the second tier of the 6-3-3-4 educational system which is for six years duration in Nigeria.
According to Adepoju (1998) secondary education is the type of education which is exposed to children in secondary institution, where the students acquire fundamental knowledge, skills thought, feelings and actions, which are considered necessary for all citizens, regardless of social status, vocation or sex. It should be noted that secondary education has direct impact on development as a result of cognitive skills of literacy.
It has been observed that poor performance in the field of science is caused by the poor quality of science teachers, overcrowded classrooms and lack of suitable and adequate science equipment among others. Students perform poorly in biology because; the biology classes are usually too large and heterogeneous in terms of ability level. Snezana et al. (2011) outline in his study that academic achievement in lessons began with experiment or demonstration was higher than lessons beginning with lecture method. In addition, the laboratories are ill-equipped and the Biology syllabus is over loaded (Ajayi, 1988). This study intends to examine the effects of demonstration methods in the academic achievement of students in biology in some selected secondary schools Gusau local government area.
The act of demonstration with instructional materials during biology class is very important to enhance the students’ achievement in learning biology since images stick more than words in the mind of students.
Biology is a subject that has to do with natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. For example, the Adrenal glands, it located at the top of the kidney. Take for instance a diagram like kidney which looks like a bean shape can stick properly in the mind of students when the students see the diagram. A biology teacher can tell the students the function of a diagram, at the end of the day most students tends to forget most of this functions.
However, there are certain problems that are encountered in both lecture and demonstration methods of teaching. Lecture method is a common strategy teacher employ in the teaching of biology. It is also referred to as talk and chalk or text book method (Gbamaja 1991). In the course of employing the method, the teacher dominates the teaching with very little participation on the part of the learners. Here the teacher is seen as the repository of all knowledge while the student is passive recipients of knowledge transmitted by the teachers in the process of learning. The method has the advantage of covering a wide area within a short time but the problems here is that it is not student cantered and students do not gain mastery of concept, it reduces freedom, it considers slow and fast learners in same pace. Lecture method can be informative, boring and overwhelming depending on the compelling nature of the message and the presenter’s style and clarity of message. The lecture method usually is one-way communication and allows for little or none audience participation. The result is audience misunderstanding, loss of information and poor retention. Mundi (2006) opined that demonstration teaching method is advantageous in the following ways: it saves time and facilitates material economy; it is an attention inducer and a powerful motivator in lesson delivery; students receive feedback immediately through their own products. But the problems here are that Good demonstrators are not easy to find. Considerable skills are required to give good demonstration; the “Result” type of demonstration may take considerable time and may be rather expensive, Demonstration method of teaching may require a large amount of preliminary preparation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Lecture and demonstration methods have improved the academic achievement of most students in learning biology; but the case is different with Gusau local government area of Zamfara some because of lack of infrastructure such as lack of constant supply of electricity, lack of good roads, poor laboratory, dilapidated school library and lack of experienced teachers and lack of instructional materials for demonstration during teaching.
The federal government of Nigeria through the Nigerian union of Teachers (NUT) has put in so much effort to see to the development of most of the schools in Gusau local government area of Zamfara.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are to:
- To ascertain the effect of students taught with demonstration method and those taught with lecture method in the achievement of students in Biology
- Determine the mean achievement score of male and female students taught with lecture
- Determine the mean achievement score of male and female students taught with demonstration method.
- To access information on the effect of learning on the academic achievement of students
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the following objectives, the study put up the following questions to have deep understanding of the topic
- What is the mean achievement score of students taught Biology using lecture method and those taught demonstration methods?
- What is the mean achievement score of male and female taught Biology using demonstration and lecture method?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant different in the mean achievement score of students taught Biology using lecture method and those taught demonstration method
H0: There is no significant different in the mean achievement score of male and female students taught Biology using demonstration and lecture method.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is indeed of great significance as it will elicit information on the effect of lecture and demonstration method of teaching on student’s achievement in learning biology, the study will also discuss the cause of poor academic performance of students in learning biology. The study will look at the roles of teachers in student’s choice in learning biology. This study will be useful to students, researchers, scholars, educationist, parent, educators and school administration who will use it for further studies. It is hoped that this study will provide information for parent, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their schools, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. This study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the environment as it affects the academic performance of student in secondary school. It will serve as resource materials for others who want to carry out research in related field.
This study is very important to student teachers and professional teachers in the field of government, the knowledge gained from this study would enable prospective school administrators, examiners, writers and students to understand various reasons why students perform poor teaching and learning Biologyand find ways of solving the problems and finally the study will discuss the effect of learning on student’s academic achievement in learning Biology.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study will focus on the effect of lecture and demonstration method in the academic achievement of students’ biology; the study will cover the effect of academic achievement of students in learning biology. The study will consider a total number of forty (40) respondents in Gusau local government area of Zamfara.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: Financial constraints tend to impede the student’s ability to get all the materials needed for the study but with the materials available the researcher was able to get meaningful information concerning the research topic above
TIME CONSTRAINTS: The researcher being a student will be involved with departmental activities like seminar presentation and attendance to class, but the researcher was able to meet up with the time allocated for the completion of the research work.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
DEMONSTRATION: demonstration in accordance to the study is an act of showing that something is in existence
LECTURE: this is simply an educational talk to an audience, especially one of students in a university.
ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: refers to a student’s success in meeting short- or long-term goals in education. In the big picture, academic achievement means completing high school or earning a college degree.
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