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1.1  Background of the study

A form of blended-learning method to training, flipped learning is a sort of flipped learning. It encourages student-centered learning, participation, and achievement. It’s also a hybrid approach, in which teachers “combine conventional face-to-face training with an online component.” Tucker (Tucker, 2012). Teachers that believe in the efficiency of direct or explicit education and its advantages in the classroom want to use a flipped classroom. The instructor is generally the principal focus of a lesson and the major leader of information throughout the class hour in the conventional paradigm of classroom teaching. While the instructor replies to inquiries, pupils have various requirements for guidance and response from the instructor. Individual lessons in a classroom with a fundamentally conventional style of education may be didactic and subject based. In the conventional paradigm, student interaction may be confined to activities in which students work alone or in small groups on a teacher-designed application assignment. The instructor is usually at the center of class discussions, controlling and, if necessary, directing the flow of the topic (Ryback and Sanders, 1980). In most cases, this teaching method also entails assigning pupils the duty of reading from a textbook or exercising a subject by completing an assignment. In flipped classrooms, in-class activities are reimagined. To engage students in the topic, in-class lessons that accompany flipped classrooms may involve action learning or more typical homework assignments, among other approaches. The following are some examples of class activities: utilizing 5 CLASSICAL VS FLIPPED CLASSROOM METHODS In-depth laboratory investigations, original document analysis, debate or speech presentation, current event conversations, peer reviewing, project-based learning, and skill development or concept practice are all examples of math manipulative and new mathematical technology. Bergmann and Sams (2012; Bergmann and Sams, 2012; Bergmann and Sams, 2012; Bergmann and Sams The flipped classroom paradigm has several benefits and drawbacks in terms of student and teacher academic achievement. The following are some of the benefits:

For students: Provide learning chances for students at various times based on their learning abilities; Improving students’ capacity to remark; Providing constant access to information; Providing possibilities for parents to assist more children by following classes; Providing students with the capacity to take responsibility for their learning activities Allow pupils to actively cooperate and practice on their classmates. Teachers should enable students to be more helpful in classroom practice, and interactive activities with students should assist lessen difficulties with student conduct in classroom management. CLASSICAL VS. FLIPPED CLASSROOM METHODS Allow students to work in small groups Allow the instructor to clarify the problems to avoid time wasted repeating Allow for the development of contact between instructors and students (Gençer, Gürbulak, Adgüzel, 2014). Of course, there will be certain drawbacks to the flipped learning system. The flipped classroom technique will not fully fit every person, just as classroom lecturing works well for some and not for others. The flipped classroom method’s major limitation today is that not all students and institutions have access to tools that can make it work. Lower-income students and families may not have access to the computers and internet technology that the flipped classroom necessitates. Every student has personal access to his or her own personal device, which is critical to the framework. This is not true for every kid or for every school district. Students without personal computers or internet connection would be compelled to utilize public computers at the library or at school. This reduces the intimate and intimate experience of attending a lecture to some extent. Students can complete it on their own time and in their own style, which is why having lectures as homework is so effective. On a library or school computer, time limitations are usually in place, and access may be restricted if the computer is overcrowded.

1.2 Statement of research problem

Teachers have employed flipped classrooms in schools, however when this technique is employed with primary school students, their academic achievement tends to be poor owing to a variety of variables. A flipped classroom, for example, has two drawbacks. One of them is the difficulty in adapting to the students and behaving in line with the flipped classroom standards, which involve previous study of the class contents. Another drawback of the flipped classroom is that it requires the teacher to expend a lot of work and preparation.

1.2  Objectives of the study

The primary objective of this study are as follows:

l  to find out the effect of flipped classroom on the academic performance of primary school pupils.

l  to find out how effective flipped classroom is on the academic performance of primary school pupils

l  To find out how to improve learning method of primary school pupil in other to improve their academic performance.

1.3  Research questions

1.        Does flipped classroom have effect on the academic performance of primary school pupil?

2.        Do you think flipped classroom is effective on the academic performance of primary school pupils?

3.        Can  learning method  of teaching primary school pupils be improved upon?

1.4  Research hypothesis

H0: flipped classroom does not affect performance of primary school pupils

1.5  Significance of the study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

l  This study will examine the effect of flipped classroom on academic performance of primary school pupils.

l  The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, NAFDAC, advertising agencies and academia.

1.6  Scope of the study

This study intends to examine the effect of flipped classroom on academic performance of primary school in Akure South local government area of  ONDO state. Hence, selected primary schools and pupils will be used as a case study.

1.7  Limitations of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by  the researcher ,in getting relevant materials  and  in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.8  Operational definition of terms

Effect: a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Flipped classroom:  a flipped classroom, the instruction is delivered online, outside of class. … Then, class time is spent doing what ordinarily may have been assigned as homework.

Academic performance:  the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals

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