Full Project – Effect of different rates of poultry manure on growth and yield of Okra

Full Project – Effect of different rates of poultry manure on growth and yield of Okra

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1.1 Background Information

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus, L Moench) is widely cultivated in the tropics mainly for its life fruits which are use as vegetables both in green and dry state. Anyawo et al (1998) reported that, the crop has been under cultivation long ago in Central America and Egypt but it is believed to be origin of Asian.Philips (1977), stated that Okra is among the most early grown vegetables throughout Nigeria, the fruit is much like for soup and the crop grow under most Nigeria climatic condition.

Monkey (1985) stated that Okra is one of the most common vegetables beside spinach types of vegetables. Okra stem has hairy like structure from its surface and large alternate cordate leaves which are divided into 3-5 pointed lobes not ched or toothed margins . It has large yellow flower and slightly cylindrical  pods up to 20 cm long when matured. The minor stem is cylindrical purple or green colour and grows to a height of 1.5-3m range and generally have a green or red palmsticubate or palmatipartite lamina with 3-5 segment.

In Nigeria there are several varieties of Okra both local and improved. Some of the varieties available include NHAC 47 – 4, LD 88/1-8-26-1, LD 88/1/1-8-13-12, U35, UM 80, Jokoso Chumson Spinelles TB 82/14/18, TB 82/1704 etc. (Ahmadu and Gupta, 1995).


Okra is a vegetable in the tropics and sub-tropics used mainly in traditional cooking especially in west Africa, the immature fruits are cut into pieces and cooked with water to make soups. The fruits may also be preserved for later consumption when there is shortage of produce by slicing and drying the fruits in the sun later reduce to powder. Martins (1982) reported that the slimy fresh pod okra are edible and rich in vitamin A and C, fruit can be dried and stored. The edible portion of the fruits contains approximately 86.1% moisture, 9.7% carbohydrate, 2.2% protein, 1.0% fibre, 0.2% fat, as and it is also a good source of Vitamin A,B and C as well as nutrients notably iodine.

Okra is propagated by seed and the seed is obtain from fully matured dried pods and okra is planting at 2-3 seed for each hole. And in a deep of 2-3cm apart and to ground level (Akinsoye 1976).

Okra required a well drained sandy soil, addition of manure or other organic materials is usually beneficial on light textured soils. Okra grow best in a soil with PH of 6.5-7.5 Abrics Alphereta GA 770-663-700 fax:- okra is a tropical recurring warm growing condition commercial production is recommended only in the warmest portions of . Temperature should be above 55oC for good growth.  Minimum soil temperature for germination is 600c and the optimum soil temperature range is 700c-900c Mike et al (1958) stated that okra was introduced  to modesto carlifornia okra is found in its wild state in the nile and Egyptians were the fruits cultivated in the first basin of the nile (12th century BC).

It was propagated through north Africa to the Mediterranean the Balkan and India it arrived the America’s at Brazil in 1658, Dutch guinea and new or leams before extending in the United State.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Okra Abelmochus esculentus (L) needs full range of available nutrients. It grows well in fertile soil with high organic matter content, farmers in the study area are mostly low in come earners and cannot afford to purchase the inorganic fertilizer due to high cost therefore lead to low production of the crop.

1.3 Justification of the study

Considering the nutrient demand of okra high cost in organic fertilizer the level income of the farmers in the study area and the high demand of okra, it is imperative to find a suitable supplement to inorganic fertilizer. The fact poultry manure increased nutrient level in the soil also improve soil drainage and water holding capacity this make poultry manure a suitable alternative to in organic fertilizer.

Earlier research showed that poultry manure is rich in nutrient by plants and can be use in maintaining the fertility of the soil. Poultry manure is very much available and cheap therefore can be purchase by farmers in the study area during the rainy season and it is very cheap to get  the low income farmers who constitutes majority in the study area.

1.4 Objective of the study

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To investigate the effect of poultry manure on the growth of okra.
  2. To find the effect of poultry manure on the yield of okra.

1.5 Limitation of the study

The project was limited to the field work conducted in the study area. Study was strictly to found the effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentu)s as affected by different rates of poultry manure and the project was carried out in the college farm.



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Full Project – Effect of different rates of poultry manure on growth and yield of Okra