Full Project – Effect of aqueous extracts of Moringa Oleifera seed on the lipid profile of albino rats

Full Project – Effect of aqueous extracts of Moringa Oleifera seed on the lipid profile of albino rats

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Hyperlipidemia has been ranked as one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of coronary heart diseases. Coronary heart diseases, stroke, artheroselerosis and hyperlipidemia are primary causes of death worldwide (Ginsberg, 1998). Currently many research studies focus on the beneficial effects of bioactive phytochemicals present in micro level in our daily diet. These phytochemicals are abundant in grains, vegetables, fruits, seeds and nuts. They are believed to contribute positively in the prevention of degenerative diseases. The mechanics behind the different the beneficial effects of dietary photochemical are not fully understood.  However, these compounds are known to act as antioxidants, hypocholesterolemic, enzyme modulating agents and phytohormones (Shardi et al., 1992). Moringa oliefera is one of the 14 species of family moringa moringaceae, native to India, Africa, Arabia, Southeast Asia, south America, and the pacific and Caribbean islands (Boorichum et al., 2011 and Iqbal et al., 2006). According to Iqbal and Bhanger, 2006 moringa leaves contain more vitamin A than carrots, more vitamin C than oranges, more calcium than milk, more potassium than bananas and more iron than spinach. The moringa oleifera tree was introduced to Africa from India at the turn of the twentieth century where it was to be used as a health supplement. It has been consumed by humans throughout the century in diverse culinary ways.

On a global scale, the prevalence of obesity rapidly increases each year, making it the most extensive and fastest growing public health concern. Lipid profile is a blood test that serves as a diagnostic tool to measure lipid levels such as total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are commonly seen in people with lipid disorders and are corrected with abnormal lipid profiles (Davidson, 2006). The leaves of Moringa Oleifera can be eaten fresh, cooked or stored as a dried powder for many months without any major loss of its nutritional value (Booncum et al., 2011 and Palada et al., 2003). Leaves of this plant are reported to possess various biological activities, including hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic, hypotensive and antihyperlipidermic effect. Drugs used in treatment of hyperlipidemia currently include stains (simvastatin, pravastatin), resins (cholecystyramine) and fibrates (gemfibrozil). Less commonly used colestipol. For centuries and in many cultures around the world, the medicinal usage of the moringa has been used to treat problems such as skin infections, anaemia, anxiety, asthma, blackheads, blood impurities, bronchitis, catarrh, chest congestion, cholera and many other illness (Khawaja et al., 2010; Hamza, 2010; Singh et al., 2012). Moringa oliefera  also consists of anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-epileptic, diuretic, cholesterol lowering, renal, anti-diabetic, (Paliwal et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2012) and  hepatoprotective activities (Lai et al., 2010; Huang et al., 2012). It has also long been labeled for its great cosmetic value in which in recent years, the moringa has commonly been found to be used in various health care products including body and hair moisturizers and conditioners. It was also discovered that Moringa oil was used in skin ointments ever since the Egyptian times. The Moringa was claimed to be the ‘most nutrient rich plant yet discovered’ by Khawaja et al., (2010).

A careful examination of the phytochemical constituents present in the seed reveals vast abundant compounds rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates (Sinha, 2012; Ogunjinmi et al., 2012). Common phytochemicals found in the seed irrespective of the solvent used in the extraction includes alkaloids, resins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides etc. An enormous literature has shown that the seeds have been extracted with various solvents, which has led to the presence of different phytochemicals and commonly used solvents are water, ethanol, methanol etc. Raw moringa oliefera leaves are healthy source of vitamins A which has a great importance in the function of vision, fertility, growth and formation of the fetus, and protection and division of the cells. Moringa oliefera acts antioxidant which defends the body from the adverse effects of free radicals, contaminants and toxins. It is also a great source of beta-carotene, vitamin C, polyphenols and vitamin E, which are close in amount to those present in nuts, act as an antioxidant; shows inhibit cell proliferation (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2016). Dried Moringa leaves are a major source of polyphenolic acids. The synthesized flavonoids in planta are a reaction to microbial infections and have a specific structure benzopyranone chain. Flavonoid intake has been shown to reduce persistent oxidative stress-related diseases, including respiratory disease and cancer. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effect of Moringa Oleifera consumption on lipid profile in rats.


1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM                              

Lipid disorder means there is high blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and fats called triglycerides, or both (Davidson, 2006). High level of these substances increases risk for developing heart diseases. These are major forms of cholesterol found in the body which are low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Low-density lipoprotein can combine with other fats and substances in the blood, creating blockages in the arteries. Blockages in the arteries can reduce the blood flow and cause serious health problem such as heart disease, heart attacks, or stroke.


The main aim is to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Moringa seeds in the lipid profile of albino rats.


The specific objectives of the study are;

  • To determine the effect on triglycerides
  • To determine the effect on high-density lipoprotein on total cholesterol.



The study will provide detailed information about the possible harmful and/or beneficial effects of the consumption of seeds of Moringa Oleifera which contains tremendous amount of phytochemicals on the lipid profile of biological systems (Albino rats), thus creating awareness beneficial to the masses.


This study will cover the following areas;

  • Collection of 20 adult Albino rats and Moringa Oleifera seeds from the market.
  • Administration of aqueous extracts of Moringa Oleifera seeds to adult albino rats.

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Full Project – Effect of aqueous extracts of Moringa Oleifera seed on the lipid profile of albino rats