Full Project – Design and construction of automatic voltage regulator (AVR)

Full Project – Design and construction of automatic voltage regulator (AVR)

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 1.1 Background of the project

Automatic voltage s (AVR) is a device which is used to regulate  or  stabilize  electrical power supply for  electrical  or  electronic appliances. This device helps automatically to keep the voltage level from the public power supply system to a consistent regulated level. In other words, the minimum   and maximum   ranges   of voltage are maintained in order to achieve an appropriate output.

This devices also serve as a protective device for appliances connected directly to it, while  the AVR is connected directly to the public  supply. The protective system  in AVR either regulate or stabilize  it  to around 220v±10% for the  safety of our appliances  or the  fuse in  the AVR will rupture  by excess current  of the surge and thereby cut-off the  incoming   power supply.

The  stabilization and regulation  is achieved  through the sensing and control circuit which  include microcontroller, relays and other components  of  various  voltages from the  secondary  winding  of the auto-transformer used in  this  project work.

This sensing and control circuitry, does the work of sensing the input voltage, processes the input and drives a suitable output which results in energizing and powering the suitable relay and hence output voltage. By this arrangement, an improved automatic voltage regulation is achieved and, is  hereby presented  in this


1.2 Statement of the problem

Power instability and voltage variations and inconsistencies in developing countries is no longer a hear say; there is need for a reliable voltage regulation unit for regulating the supplied voltage as well as protect the users from over or  under voltage supply of electrical power or energy. This system becomes very important when one  considers the regularity of this voltage variation and the cost-effect it may have on certain processes like production and manufacturing or even on home use.


1.3 Objectives of the study

The broad objective of this study is to design and implement a microcontroller  based automated  voltage . Its specific objectives include:


  1. To study the working principle of automated systems. Also to exploit the advantages and application of digital electronics.
  2. To design and implement a working circuitry for automation of voltage regulation.
  3. To exploit the data processing abilities of microcontrollers.
  4. To incorporate intelligence and display into voltage regulation


1.4 Scope of the study

This project covers the development of an electronic operating circuitry which serves as the interface between the three input voltage and the single output voltage

The work portrays the use of microcontrollers in processing/controlling of data. It highlights the means of communicating with the microcontroller and the benefits of microcontroller. It also highlights the ease with which an analogue signal can be converted to digital signal.

It also shows how the system can be applied to improve comfort.


1.5 Justification of the study

The significance of the study is highlighted in the fact that it enhances the automation of power supply regulation. The study presents an efficient mechanism for automation of electrical energy regulation to overcome  the effect of voltage fluctuations. This ensures that industrial, commercial or domestic processes are done more efficiently.

Also, it provides a cheap, durable and reliable alternative to manual operation of voltage regulation and stabilization systems. The sub-units used in the design are relatively cheap, available and also reliable; thereby ensuring that the final product (system) is reliable and affordable.

It is a convenient and simple control system and does not really need much power requirement to be able to perform its primary function. The system may even be modified to suit other specific requirements and needs.

Finally, this study is expected to stir up, interest in software design, hardware design, systems analysis, its design and implementations. It is expected to contribute significantly to existing literature in the subject under investigation


1.5 Scope  of the work

This work was done and reported in four chapters; the system was first introduced in chapter one, highlighting several important sections like background of the work, statement of problem, scope of the work, justification etc

Chapter two outlined the principles of electric power supply, architecture of three phase selector as well as reviewing of previous literary work on the system.

Chapter three detailed the system’s analysis and design. This featured the various methodologies that were considered for the work, their strength and weaknesses and why prototyping was chosen. It also reviewed the old system as well as proposed model for the new system. It also contains the analysis of the system blocks and principle of operation of the system.

Finally, conclusion and recommendation of the study was given in the last chapter.


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Full Project – Design and construction of automatic voltage regulator (AVR)