Full Project – Design and construction of a three bedroom bungalow for a disabled low income earner
A building is regarded as an enclosure or “envelope” designed and constructed to provide minimum level of comfort, and conveniences for man. Building provides safety, protects human inhabitants, animals, materials and equipment from effects of weather, and gives internal comfort (Ogunoh, 2008). According to Obiegbu, (2003) a building is an essential modifier of micro-climate, a space isolated from climate temperature and humidity, fluctuations, sheltered from prevailing winds and precipitation, and with artificial means.
That is why Obiegbu, (2003) states that buildings are enclosure for space, designed for specific uses, meant to control local climate, distribute services and evacuate wastes. In fact, building, being an essential part of human existence, is regarded as a basic need of mankind and ranks second to food, (Ogunoh, 2014). He maintained that building is a human imperative without which man’s survival is inconceivable. That is why people and building are inseparable. As Akinsola and Iyagba, (2006) put it, that the existence of a building structure is a basic necessity in every society, that their presence in most cases, determines the level of growth and development in any developing society. In another study, Mohamed, (2005) states that adequate residential accommodation and related facilities constitutes one of the essentials of good life and therefore, a major requirement of an efficient and satisfied labour force. Again, this constitutes the foundation of a satisfactory community life. In other words, buildings are elements in the package of basic needs, which a community would like to procure for better living (Ogunoh, 2014).
Generally, buildings are designed and constructed to provide healthy comfortable environment, create a conducive atmosphere for working, living and learning (Okolie, 2011). In addition, a healthy building is one that adversely affects neither the health of its occupants nor the large environment (Hal Leven, 1995). According to Okoye and Ogunoh, (2008), buildings are expected to function effectively throughout their expected life span. In a nutshell according to Ogunoh, (2014), a building must function to accommodate the activities for which it is built, and provides comfortable indoor and outdoor climates to its occupants.
The construction of a building requires much time, effort and attention. The involvement of the building team is to strike a perfect erection of the building. Aside from that, other construction activities relating to this our project work were adequately carried out.
This project work is titled “DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A THREE BEDROOM BUNGALOW FOR A DISABLED LOW INCOME EARNER”. It contains the procedures, sequential needs for realizing the construction of a residential building for a disabled low income earner. Stating the step by step action that should be undertaken at each point in time, with good explanations on how they are to be carried out. Tools to be used, equipment and material and how to use them are stated. The Building should conform to standards to avoid unplanned maintenance for disabled low income earners and good measures of construction should be applied such as short stairs for the entrance and exit of the disabled owners.
The transaction of financial reports, exchange in communication, flow of ideas and coordination are seen from the clients to the least persons in the building team. The client could be an individual, the government or even a corporate body that makes or presents briefing to the architect.
The responsibility of the architect is to ensure that he produce what the client wants, It is the duty of the client to reveal the location, size and shape of the land he has for building, to the architect, this he does through an accurate survey of the proposed land, which is been carried out by a professional surveyor.
After the production of the architectural drawing by the architect, the structural engineer produces a structural drawing which analysis the structural strength of the building, the mechanical and electrical drawing also done by a mechanical and electrical engineer respectively. A builder is responsible for the entire construction process of the building. He does this by taking charge of the activities on the building construction site in translating designs, working drawings, schedules and specifications into a physical structure. He uses his production management expertise, coupled with the necessary resources such as money, manpower, material and machineries, in the site execution of building project.
1.1 Aim and Objectives of the Study
A good planning is essential for proper execution of the project. The main aim of this work is to design and construct a three bedroom bungalow for a disabled low income earner..
The aim of this work is achieved through the following objectives.
- To produce a building that will provide safety and comfort to its users (low income earner).
- To facilitate a good finishing, appearance and attractive aesthetics views.
- To ensure that construction will be carried out properly to ensure the maintainability, functionality and serviceability of this building for a low income earner.
- To carry out the construction in a manner that people will appreciate and emulate the design and construction pattern.
1.2 Significance of the Study
This project work is done to provide and ensure privacy, protection and security for the occupants and properties. To provide habitation, residence and equally shelter the occupants(low income earner). It has promoted the development of the area in which the construction will take place.
1.3 Limitations of the Study
It was carried out as specified and programmed. In the cause of this project work some limitations were experienced, such limitations includes; Financial challenges, time factor, as it shares the time which was meant for other school activities.
1.4 Feasibility and Viability Study of the Site Including Soil and Site Analysis:
This is a critical investigation that establish, examines, evaluates, highlight and structure the advantages and disadvantages over time of alternative solution to a given problem. Taking all construction projects as problems with alternative solution that have advantages and disadvantages over time, the benefits of engaging professional builder to conduct feasibility and viability studies of a building project are to examine option, evaluate proposals, establish capital outlay, time table and cash flow, availability of resources lost control, set target for future, maintenance manager and preparation of documents that could be used to approach financial institution for loan funding.
The study of the proposed site is carried out to ascertain the suitability of the site for the project.
The site for this proposed building is located at Amaeze in Obibiezena Owerri North Local Government Area, Imo State. The site proposed for the construction work measures is a 900sqm.
Some of these studies are as follows;
1.4.1 The Geographical Factor (Soil Type)
The soil type of the site is coarse-medium-fine soil and observed from the soil test. From the observation and test, the soil is found suitable to withstand the load bearing pressure of the building and it also defined the type of foundation to be used for the building. The topography of the site is leveled and hence suitable for strip foundation.
1.4.2 The Climatic Factor
The site is not prone to excessive harsh weather condition which includes sun, wind, etc which may affect the building and the choice of building material and also the entire construction activities. The climatic condition of the area is well conducive for the occupation of the building.
1.4.3 The Accessibility of the Site
During the site investigation, we accessed the site through which we found that there are the presence of some certain amenities around the site, such as already made buildings, water supply, access roads that surrounds the area and there are also availability of service of electricity (Electric power authority) and telecommunication. We also inform the physical planning authority that investigated and finally reported that the nature of the building development is permitted to build on the proposed location.
1.4.4 The Environmental Factors
Being an already developed place with building around it, the safety of the users is assured. Also, the site is located closer to a another complex which proves that the existing soil condition is quite good and has no history of structural danger, the availability of skilled and unskilled labourers is possible because its located close to a town.
1.4.5 The Economic/Socio-Cultural Factors
Since the soil is alright to carry the bearing pressure of the building, we choose to deploy machine for site clearance and excavation due to the hardness of soil. We also choose to adopt the strip foundation because of its economical and less expensiveness and high durability.
1.5 Setting Out
Setting out is simply the accurate or right positioning of the building on the site with all the dimensions transferred from a detailed working drawing produced by the architect. The task is usually undertaken once the site has been cleared of any debris or obstruction and also top soil excavation. This can equally proceed when the necessary pre-construction processes have been fully satisfied which is aimed at facilitating on coming activities. Setting out is a sole responsibility of a professional builder using information as provided by the architect.
Accurate setting out is of (paramount) important because the success of the building solely depend on it, and therefore should be carried out by a competent person. Since the proposed building plan is located near an existing road, the building line was fixed and drawn away from the back of the foot path. This action (setting out) can be achieved through many ways and some of which are, using the 3:4:5 method, Theodolite, and Builders’ Square method. Certain things are put into consideration, like the building line with regards to the location.
The construction of a three bedroom bungalow for a disabled low income earner should be accurately positioned in the ground by having reference to the drawing. All the dimensions and shapes should be accurately marked out round. The builder square method should be adopted in this work section. This should be achieved by the use of some necessary working tools as listed; 30m tape, ranging poles, wooden pegs, hammer, spirit level and plumb rule, builders square, line (rope) and 50x50x3600mm wooden profile, nails(2” & 3”). The wooden profile should be jointed with 75mm nail and 50mm nail for showing excavation on line and block line.
The building line with the site accomplished set back should be considered and determined during setting out exercise. Earth support, concrete in foundation, block in foundation, back filling, column reinforcement and oversight concrete should be done accurately. All this should be achieved at a required depth and thickness as described in foundation. Why this method was adopted was that, it’s less expensive to carry out and requires little instrument which can be easily laid hands on.
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Full Project – Design and construction of a three bedroom bungalow for a disabled low income earner