Full Project – Data security with cryptography over a network
Data (or information) security is the means of ensuring that data is kept save from corruption and that access to it is suitably controlled. Thus, data security helps to ensure privacy; it also helps in protecting personal data when transmitting data over a network. There is need for data to be protected against unauthorized access, use, disclosure destruction, modification or disruption (Layton 2001). The terms information security, computer security and information assurance are frequently used interchangeably. These fields are interrelated and share the common goals of projecting the confidentiality integrity and availability of information especially information transmitted over a network. However, there are some subtle differences between them. These differences (i.e. primarily in the approach to the subject, the methodology as used and the area of concentration)
Information security is concerned with the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data regardless of the form. Data may take electronic print or other forms.
Nigeria Agip Oil Company, have long understood the importance and necessity of protecting their data transmitted over network, such information falling into the hands of their enemy could be disastrous. Most of the information is now collected, processed, and stored on electronic computers and transmitted across network to other computers. Should confidential information about their employees, customers, products, research and financial status fall into the hands of a competitor, such a breach of security could lead to loss of business. Protecting confidential information is a company requirement in many cases. It is also a legal requirement and some would say that it is the right thing to do for the company Information security has a significant role in Nigeria Agip Oil Company.
The field of data (information) security has grown and evolved much in recent years. The growing number of data transmitted over networks call for intensive security measured to enhance data protection as well as maintain the originality of transmitted data. This forms the basis for this study, which focuses on the security of data transmitted over a network using an enhanced security technique such as cryptography. Cryptography involves the encryption and decryption of data (or information) over a network.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This project would address the issue of data security with cryptography over network with special focus on Nigeria Agip Oil Company (NAOC) Port Harcourt as a case study. Information that is considered to be confidential in nature must only be accessed, used, copied, transmitted by persons who have been authorized to access, use, copy or disclose the information, and them only when there is a genuine need to access, use, copy or disclose the information. A breach of confidentiality occurs when information that is considered to be confidential in nature has been or may have been assessed, used, copied, or disclosed to or by someone who was not authorized to have access to the information. For example, permitting someone to look over your shoulder at your computer screen while you have confidential data displayed on it would be a breach of confidentiality if they are not authorized to have the information.
Therefore in protecting data (information) from unauthorized access and use, the, three basic feature of security comprising confidentially, integrity and availability must not be compromised. In most cases, these features are compromised leading to server consequence in terms of the security of transmitted data especially on the network that spans wide geographical areas. On the basis of this, this study intends to identify and implement the saltiest measures towards enhancing maximum security for the data that is sent and recurred over network.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will specifically discuss the available mechanisms and techniques for data security over a network using cryptography which entails encryption and decryption of transmitted data based on a cipher key. The system that is designed is fully installed with the program i.e. (VBASIC) which would look into the area of transforming information from a cipher text to a plain text using some specific parameter like secret key ie (Encryption key and decryption key) to achieve data security.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study aim at developing software that ensures that data is not created, changed, accessed or deleted without authorization thus keeping information secret and restricts access to its use.
The Objectives of the study includes:
Explore available techniques for data encryption and decryption
Use of authentication to control access to transmitted data and
Maintenance of the integrity of transmitted data in the Information Communication Technology Department. (ICTD)
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Access to protected data and information must be restricted to people who are authorized to access the data and information. The computer programs, and in many cases, the computer that processes the information must also be authorized. This required data and information. The sophistication of the access control mechanism should be in parting with the data being protected. The more sensitive or valuable the information, the stronger the control mechanisms need to be the foundation in which such an access control mechanism is built starting with the identification and authentication.
Identification is an assertion of whom someone is or what something is whereas, authentication is the act of verifying a claim of identity. Consequently these two mechanisms enhance security of transmitted data on a network. This study will therefore place its emphasis on identification and authentication through cryptography to provide a platform for managing data transmission security in order that data protection is achieved at all times.
Most organization, banks, company’s like Nigeria Agip Oil Company (NAOC), institutions of higher learning, corporate businesses, the military and the government need confidentiality as well as integrity of transmitted data to effect decision making processes and control the flow of information to only authorized points. The consequences of unauthorized access to confidential (private) data (as well as information) are better imagined then described.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study will avoid complex and complicated security measures and information security policies due to time and financial constraint. Since authorization to access information and other computing services begins with administrative policies and procedure, the study will only focus on encrypting and decrypting data entered into a terminal to transmission with much emphasis on how such is sent or received.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMINOLOGIES
ALGORITHM:- A prescribed set of a well-defined values or instructions for the solution of a problem.
NETWORK:- A group of computers and peripheral devices inter connected together by means of shared communication link.
FLOWCHART:- It is a graphical representation of the steps necessarily to solve a problem completely a process to accomplish a task illustrate the order in which a variety of decision are to be made and activities performed.
CRYPTOGRAPHY:- The branch of science that studies encryption and decryption. It is the way of protecting and ensuring confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of information.
ENCRYPTION:- Is the transformation of data into a form, that is virtually impossible to read without having a key to unlock and translate the data.
DECRYPTION:- Is the transformation of data back to its original usable form by an authorized user with the use of cryptograph key.
PLAIN TEXT:- Is the original form of the data
CIPHER TEXT- Is the translated form of the data.
ENCRYPTION KEY:- Secret key or password that is used to transform data into a cipher text.
DECRYPTION KEY:- Secret key or password that is used to interpret the cipher text.
PASSWORD:- Sequence of characters selected from a given set of characters and serve to handle access rights.
APPLICATION:- It is the way of doing something
COMPUTER:- An electronic device used to record, store, process and communicate information.
HARDWARE:- This physical component of a computer system including the electrical electronic component.
DATA:- Data are basic facts about an entity may be a person, an object or an activity for example student name, matric number, department, sex etc. of a particular student and some of his personal data.
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Full Project – Data security with cryptography over a network