Full Project – Computerized erosion control information system in south-east Nigerian region
This project is specifically on erosion control information system. Soils plays an essential role for mankind because provide the fundamental ecosystem services required for human life primarily for the production of food by providing the environment for plant growth. Soil provides the pathways through which water and nutrients move to the roots of plants, they are the matrix for nutrient transformations and environment for micro-organisms and fauna (powlson 2009). According to Dominate et al., (2010), soils provides provisioning regulating and cultural services presumably the most important provisioning service for human life supplied by soils through food production. As reported by Food And Agriculture Organization ( FAO) (2011), agriculture uses 11% of the world’s land surface for crop production, Grove (1950).
The situation of erosion is particularly pronounced in the ecologically vulnerable areas of southeastern Nigeria where population densities and least land per capita ranks among the highest in rural Africa (Onu, 2006 ).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The soil particles must be detects from the parent soil mass, agriculture which occupy over two third of the eastern region area and land mass is seriously threatened by accelerate soil erosion which is systematically reducing the land area available for agriculture, Eliso W. D. (1952) “Raindrop Energy and soil Erosion” . Causes, effects and control measures are always way been the confusing part of resolving the erosion problem in the eastern region. Erosion is of different forms the common one along our roads includes, “Gully erosion”
Gully erosion occurs in areas of strong relief or loose sandy soils. It creates deep gorges or gullies which dissect the land surface and hind movement and the cultivation of land. It is an advanced stage of rill erosion where a surface channel has been eroded to the point where they cannot be smoothed over by normal tillage operations. Gully erosion is simply defined as the run off concentration in channels greater than rills large channels.
Often, gullies can be prevented if good land conservation measures are practiced on the farm.
The U.S department of Agriculture’s Hand book 667 (AGHBK 667) in the past used “design method for Grass – lined open channel” Erosion Control Material Design Software (ECMDS). The channel protection module utilizes calculations from federal highway Administration’s Hydraulic Engineering circular 15 (HEC 15) Tractive force procedure”. The ECMDS which stands for Erosion control material design software, provided computer – assisted selection of material for slop erosion protection and channel source resistance. Without this checks on these types of erosion or a computer-assisted selection material for channel source resistance. The result of the occurrence and expansion of gullies in our roads has posed the following consequences.
- The damage of cultivated lands: Mainly farmers relying on proceed from sale of farm products cannot achieve and produce agricultural products from damaged lands and the damages the gully is causing on our roads cannot be over emphasized. It is in this quest for preventions and erosion control system, that the term “A computerized erosion information stem” become paramount. The system utilizes design procedures from the erosion control Technology council to correct failure. Criteria bases on lining degradation and soil loss.
- Accounts for differing vegetation growth habits and densities.
- Accounts for differing soil erodibility factors.
- Build a web-base erosion control information system
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The existing system in the ministry of works has been proven to be the major hindrance to effective erosion control. From business and management perspective, information system are far more than just import-process-output machines operating in a vacuum. The problem of the existing system as observed was lack of computerized processing, in the area of keeping record. Record keeping in the ministry is based on manual systems. Stone (1966). It was quite alarming that at this very stage of it revolution couldn’t observe any computer system readily available to support services. The knowledge workers were ignorant about the usefulness of the computer systems because they are not computer literate. In the existing system, frequent misplacement of vital information soften from the site. No quick and timely study, poor communication for contract bids as this is only done on news paper, instead of web-sites and other on-line marketing approach.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study became very important when observed that ministry of works has really lost in the mode2rn system of running an organization. Information systems are part of organization. Indeed, for some companies or credit reporting firms, without the system there would be no business. The way elements of an organization are composed are of different level and specialties. Structure reveals a clear – cut division of labor.
Considering the fact that ministry of works is currently running on manual system of record keeping and poor information display of contract bids for erosion problems. The ministry was interested and it could be revived to meet up with modern day system of organization management. stan L. D. (1938)“land utilization and soil erosion in Nigeria”So the essence of the new system is to introduce IT application in the area of erosion control approach.
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project is to build a web-based information system that will be supported with vegetation selection modules. The vegetation modules will utilize site specific information such as location, soil type, and moisture regime and planned site maintenance to provide a list of adapted grass and legumes with corresponding seeding rates, as well as growth habits (bunch and sod farming) and longevity for each species. The web-based information system will assist designers in selecting vegetation species well adapted to their site’s environmental conditions and erosion control Ofomata (1964). Also to design a new system that will bring about computerized storage process, and to enlighten the knowledge of workers on how to implement a computerized erosion control information system. Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction. Effective erosion controls handle surface runoff and are important techniques in preventing water pollution, soil loss, wildlife habitat loss and human property loss.
1.5 Significance of study
This research works critically explores the possible way of erosion control practices or system. The following conservation practices are commonly used on crop fields or other lands to reduce erosion, improve soil and water quality, improve plant health and minimize off site impacts from excess nutrient, pesticides and sediment.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project is limited to erosion control information. In order to provide complete channel protection, a turf reinforcement (TRM) must function to provide effective erosion control and turf reinforcement. Through the three phase of a reinforced vegetative channel lining’s development. In phase 1 the TRM must control soil and seed loss immediately after installation to ensure the successful development of a permanent vegetative stand. In phase 2, defined as the period of time from seed germination until a mature stand of vegetation is established, the matting must continue its role by supplementing the erosion protection provided by the vegetation as well as structurally reinforcing the development plants against hash shear stress water flows. Finally phase 3, when the vegetation has become mature the matting must provide stem reinforcement and root zone protection by creating a software like that of North American Green’s Vmas3 composite turf reinforcement mats (C-TRM) [see www.nagreen.com].
1.7 Limitations of study
Limitation of erosion controls in preventing, reducing or arresting slope failure and erosion is often due to:
- Time frame which may not be enough to do the project
- Limited access to sensitive document to the agency
- Unlimited financial resources to carry out this project
- Lack of access to erosion area.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Erosion: This is the overland flow resulting from rain splash and through flow of surface flow. The soil particles must be detached from the parent soil mass, transported and then the disposition of the detached material. The degree of occurrence varies considerably from one part of the field to another and it is a major environmental problem, so if not controlled can have negative effect on the environment.
Gully Erosion: This is another type of erosion, which is common in areas of strong relief or loose sandy soils. It creates deep gorges or sullies which dissect the land surface and hinders movement and cultivation of the land. It is an advanced stage of rill erosion where surface channels have been eroded to the point where they cannot be smoothed over by normal till age operations.
ECMDS: ECMDS stands for “Erosion Control Material Design Software”. It is the software from which the concept of the new system is drawn. It is used North America. ECMDS provides computer – assisted selection of material for slop erosion protection and channel source resistance. It is a necessity for every engineer, designer or contractor who must comply with today’s strict erosion and sediment control regulations.
Vegetation: This is a popular control measure to soil in Nigeria. It tends to protect the soil surface from rain drop inpact, reduce the amount of water available for runoff by consuming it and by improving infiltration capacity (by increasing surface roughness) decreases the velocity of runoff.
Grass Lined Open Channels: This a system design method that provides accurate channel hydraulic and stability analysis of lining material such as vegetation, and riprap.
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Full Project – Computerized erosion control information system in south-east Nigerian region