Full Project – Comparative study on the free radical scavenging potential of turmeric and beetroot
The recent growth in the knowledge of free radicals and antioxidants in biology is producing medical revolution that provides the new age of health and disease management (Aruoma, 2003). Free radicals are defined as the atoms, molecules or ions having unpaired electrons in their valence shell (Riley, 1994). These are capable of existing independently. In human body many processes such as metabolic process, inflammatory processes occur, which leads to the formation of free radicals. Free radicals are also formed by cigarette smoke, radiations, environmental pollution, drugs, overdoses of medicines and preservatives. These are capable of reacting with cellular components and can cause damage to the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleotides in the tissue (Young et al, 2004) thus leading to cell damage and destruction (Speakman et al, 2011). Free radicals released during oxidative stress pose the major endogenous damage in the biological system. This type of damage is often associated with various degenerative diseases and disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immunofunction decline and ageing. Several neurological disorders as Parkinson disease, depression, etc which causes dysfunction in brain (Floyd, 1996).
Antioxidants are the substances that protect the cells against the destructive effects of the free radicals. These are capable of donating elections to other molecules to stabilize themselves in order to protect against the destructive effects of free radicals (George, 2004). Antioxidants stabilize or deactivate free radicals, often before they attack targets in biological cells (Nunez et al., 2012). Since very old times, herbal medications have been used for relief of symptoms of disease (Maqsood et al., 2010). Despite the great advances observed in modern medicine in recent decades, plants still make an important contribution to health care. Much interest, in medicinal plants however, emanates from their long use in folk medicines as well as their prophylactic properties, especially in developing countries. Large numbers of medicinal plants has been investigated for antioxidant properties. Natural antioxidants either in the form of extracts or their chemical constituents are very effective to present the destructive processes caused by oxidative stress (Zengin et al., 2011). It has been mentioned the antioxidant activity of plants might be due to their phenolic compounds (Cook et al., 1996). An easy, rapid and sensitive method for the antioxidant screening of plant extracts is free radical scavenging assay using Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and Reducing power assay scavenging of the medicinal plants (turmeric and beetroot) spectrophotometrically. In the present study, antioxidant enzyme, Superoxide dismustase (SOD) activity was checked in the plants of medical importance.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) “belonging to family Zingiberaceae” is best known for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties against food borne pathogens. It is widely consumed as flavouring, preservatives and colouring agent in South Asia, India and China. It is well notorious for its unique medical properties. It is cultivated in tropical regions like Pakistan, China, Peru and India (Palanikumar et al, 2009). Curcuma longa is considered as native to the Indians. It is grown commercially in many countries of South Asia, China and India. It is well known for culinary use a key constituent of curry powder. It is an approved food addictive in the United States. Turmeric is normally called ‘haidi or harida’ in India. It is also ‘Manjal’ and its powder as ManjalThool in Tamil language. It is known as ‘Indian saffron’, as it was broadly used as a substitute to the more costly saffron spice (Hanif et al., 1997 and Ahmad et al., 2010). Turmeric has healthy influence on digestive system and it also enhances the mucin secretion in the digestive tract. In classical literature, several actions of turmeric have been specified like antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antiphelgmatic, antiviral, astringent, aromatic, blood purifier, clean skin colour, remove wound maggots, hepatoprotective, stop liver obstruction, heals wound, stimulant and sedative (Ahmad et al, 2010). Nowadays, Curcuma longa is used widely in the food industries, as a colouring agent as well as an addictive to impart flavour in curries. Turmeric is a prompt source sources of bioactive compounds like antioxidants, polyphenols and flavonoids, which may be the substitute of antibiotics used in food and food products. Tumerone, zingiberene, ar-tumerone while the non-volatile constituents are curcuminoids (Chainani-Wu, 2003). The bioactive element of Curcuma longa is curcumin. The characteristic colour of turmeric is because of curcuminoids, first time identified in 1842 by Vogal. Curcuminoids are the phenolic compounds that are present in turmeric. Amomg curcuminoids, curcumin is the main element which is responsible for the biological functions of turmeric. Curcumin is an orange-yellow crystalline substance that is insoluble in water. It is thought to be the powerful bioactive portion of turmeric (Naz et al., 2010).
Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) vegetables of chenopoidiaceace family (Hill and Langer, 1991). It is widely consumed in traditional western cooking but rarely used in West Africa (Grubben and Denten, 2004). It can be eaten as a cooked vegetable, by using different types of heat treatment or extracted for its juice to make Beetroot juice (Wotten-Beard and Ryan, 2011). The natural and harmless pigments are also useful in the food industry (Esatbeyoglu et al., 2015). Beetroot is a rich source nutrient. The vitamins include folic acid, vitamin A and C, vitamin B6, niacin and biotin. The minerals content are iron, magnesium, selenium, potassium, calcium, zinc, phosphorus and sodium (Straus et al., 2013). The bioactive compounds include phenolic, saponins, and especially betalins, which are responsible for the characteristic colour of this tuber (Zielinska et al., 2009). In recent years, there has been growing interest in the biological activity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra). Beetroot can be utilized as an inexpensive neutraceutical supplement to promote health (Clifford et al., 2015). It is has been reported to be effective in managing hypertension and improve cardiac function (Salloum et al., 2015, and Bondonno et al., 2015). This has made Beetroot to used as an adjuvant with orthodox because it has antiviral and antimicrobial effect (Strack et al., 2003), antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Georgiev, 2010 and Zielinska et al., 2012), inhibition of human tumour cell proliferation (Lechner, 2010 and Zhang et al, 2013) and hepatoprotective effects (Raheh, 2015).
Even though both turmeric and beetroot are consumed all over the world, not much is known about their combined antioxidant properties. Hence, in the present investigation, an attempt has been made to compare the free radical scavenging potential both plants.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The paucity of knowledge of the antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of these indigenous plant materials has resulted in their neglect and underutilization. It is envisaged that the result of this study will initiate the exploitation of preservative, nutraceutical and therapeutic potentials of these plant materials.
1.2 AIM OF THE STUDY
This aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the free radical scavenging potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of turmeric and beetroot using:
- Superoxide Dismutase Scavenging Activity
- Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity
- Reducing Power Assay
- To compare the free radical scavenging potential of turmeric, beetroot, and their combination.
- To investigate the synergistic potential of both plant materials to scavenge free radicals.
- SIGNIFANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will provide detailed information on the free radical scavenging potential and synergistic effect of both plant materials.
- SCOPE OF STUDY
This study will cover the following areas:
- Collection and extraction of Curcuma longa and Beta vulgaris.
- Determination of the free radical scavenging activities of Curcuma longa and Beta vulgaris using three different assays.
- Comparation of the free radical scavenging potential of Curcuma longa and Beta vulgaris
- Investigation of the synergistic abilities of both Curcuma longa and Beta vulgaris to scavenge free radicals.
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Full Project – Comparative study on the free radical scavenging potential of turmeric and beetroot