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CO-OPERATIVE AS A TOOL TO ELIMINATE UNEMPLOYMENT IN ENUGU STATE
The study was conducted to examine how unemployment has been reduced through co-operative movement in Isi0uzo local government areas. In the course of this investigation research objective and hypothesis were formulated Both primary and secondary data were collected and data was then presented in a tabular form. Based on the above the finding on the topic is as follows. Staff/employee of the sampled co-operative are averagely qualifies for their various jobs and they are given opportunities for further training by the co-operative societies. Employee of the sampled co-operative are averagely paid with some necessary allowances. Co-operative societies about 35% of school leavers yearly where helped.
There is a continuous education both to the members and the whole public. The researchers recommendation include these:- Government should make it compulsory for every establishment to have its own co-operative. Government should set up more co-operative bank to give loans to individuals and group that are prospecting to establish co-operative. In conclusion the researcher deemed it necessary that every hand must be on desk to encourage the establishment of co-operative enterprises, since it is now obvious that the only option left for us id to adopt the socio-economic model of mutual self help.
The introduction of this study co-operative as a tool to eliminate unemployment in Enugu State shows the position effect of cooperative societies in Isi-Uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State.This is an introduction to a symposium on unemployment in Isi-uzo Local Government Area. Isi-uzo journal of industrial relations keyword labour studies.Research on unemployment in Isi-uzo local Government Area is not as widespread as in most affluent economic, no doubt partly reflecting that for the past period up to the late 1960s unemployment however measured and the social problem arising from it were small.In the 1970s unemployment begins to increase sharply reflecting difficulties in economic performance and its social consequences become a matter of public concern.It would be fair to say that this change left social scientist a little stranded.
There were two strategies.Open for over coming this lack of research. One was to adapt over research, preferably in a critical way. The other to bring together whatever Isi-uzo local government area material was available.The federal state unemployment insurance system (vi) helps many people who have lost their jobs by replacing part of their wages while they look for work.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cooperative started in eighteen century in Britain as a result of the industrial revolution which caused great hardship for those who lost their jobs and also to the evil of capitalism. According to Bob. Igwe (2006, 16) capitalism means the socio-economic system with the following relation of production. It is a system divided into exploiters and exploited in which the exploiters namely the capitalist. Own the means of production, that is means of production that is means to life in the form of vertive capital and property.
During this period people begins to search for solution to stop the evil of capitalism it was in this period that the founding father Robert owe come up with an idea of organizing the people to stop the evil of capitalism and to promote the economic interest of the people through co-operative.What is co-operative?
The definition of co-operative is defined by the (ICA) international co-operative Alliance (1945) according to Onoh (2009.15) as an autonomous association of persons. United voluntarily to meet their common economic social and cultural need and aspiration through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. A cooperative is an autonomous body which means they are free government and external bodies. The members of the cooperative societies join voluntarily, it is an association of person not or capital and their objective is to meet their members needs in the economics circle. Cooperative is a basic for over all transformation of citizens social and economic problems.
According to Amahalu (2006.2), co-operative is defined as an association usually incorporated with economic aims, formal by or for persons or co-operative having common needs approximately equal or proportional contributions to capital deriving proportionate services and benefit from it. Co-operative in order to promote the welfare of their members involve themselves on most tangible projects like building of houses, building of schools, building of hospitals, building of recreation centres, markets and building of industries. Co-operative serves as a hold to company and local development agency; it also seeks to provide a community owned structure.
According to Berko (1987.29) cooperative society is a voluntary and democratic association of persons with variable membership and variable capital whose members pooled themselves and their resources together on mutual and self help basic to form a business enterprises which seeks to solve the socio-economic problems of these members by directly providing goods and service to them in their capacity as either the owners customers or owners employees of the co-operative enterprise.What is unemployment? Unemployment is as by the Buraeu of labour statistic as people who do not have a job have actively looked for work. Also people who were temporarily laid off and are waiting to be called back to that job are included in the unemployment statistic. How can co-operative eliminate unemployment in Isi-uzo local government area?
One of the points of the 7 point agenda is food security and agriculture. This point is very important Nwanze (2010) emphasized that agriculture and nutrition which is part of food security are vital important issues and need to be a key part in our effort to fight unemployment development and wealth creation. Co-operative can eliminate unemployment through creation of agriculture. They can also reduces unemployment their integrated development strategy. They can also create small scale business for people and employed people in that business.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Today there is vast unemployment in Nigeria and Enugu Isi-uzo local government area in particular. After many years of democracy there are many graduate of 15 (fifteen) years standing that room the street in search of jobs that don’t exist. Unemployment is still on the increase irrespective of federal government budget to curb the scourge.In the year 2000 the federal government budgeting N10 billion and N20 billion in 2011 to deal with unemployment yet unemployment increase on daily basis. Both the state and federal government are lunching out a lot of programmes on small scale business enterprises yet unemployment is measuring.Both our Presidents and the Governors keep on lunching out over economy to outside country. Yet there is increment in unemployment. Some many houses industries inside and outside the country yet there is increment in unemployment.
However, the fact remain that no country can succeed I providing a reasonable standard of living for her citizens. It is now obvious that the only option left of us is to adopt the socio-economic model of mutual self help where by unemployed individuals can voluntarily join together to achieve a common goal through the formation of co-operative enterprise.In order to reduce unemployment co-operative we know plays multiple roes as institutional frame work for allocating source resources, stimulating economic growth and enhancing economic welfare. It raise the income level of the people by providing income earning opportunities. Making reasons have been given for this critical situation concerning jobs and such reasons include rapid growth of population in over country, the society of capital to the cheap labour and the impact of new technology.In this study researcher seek to determine a match between the duration of unemployment and the duration of education among youth in Isi-uzo local government area.
Unemployment among the youth is on the rise in many countries over the last decades up to their point there is no research being conducted to scrutinize the employment process from school to work.Therefore this research is carried out to analyze the labour market entrance of the youth by focusing on the unemployment status of the youth after completion of formal schooling over an 18 months period and the mismatch between education and work at the early stage of working like.The problem stamen of this study is to what extent the level of education influence the duration of unemployment.Can highly educated workers being absorbed faster into job market compare to those who are not.What are the possibilities of other demographic variable that influence the inclusion into the labour market?Does a possible of mismatch between education and work during the early state of employment exist?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research has the major objective of finding in comparative terms on the heavy promotion and creation of cooperative enterprise and exploit the economic benefits associated with them in Enugu Isi-uzo local government area from 2000-2006.
-To study whether the duration of unemployment is strongly influenced by the level of education by analyzing the transition process from school to work.
-To shows the empirical evidence of the match between the duration of education and the duration of unemployment.
-To analyze the mismatch between education level and work during the early stage of the working life taking into account minimum criterion for job entry.To explore either demographic variable that influence the inclusion into the labour market.
-To identify the socio-economic characteristic associated with co-operative societies.
-To identify the support for modern farming investment for industrial development and expansion of market through co-operative society.
-To identify the problem of co-operative society creating job opportunity in Isi-uzo particular.
-To examine the volume of unemployment created by co-operative society.
-To assess the volume of viable co-operative society.
-To make recommendations on how to improve co-operative societies in order to meet the demand of reducing unemployment.
-To find out possible project co-operative can be involve in.
-To find out the number of people employed by co-operative society in Isi-uzo local government from 2000 – 2006.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
There is need for reducing unemployment in our society and Isi-uzo local government area I particular and the only way out through co-operative society. This analytical study shows the extent of some particular proposals for solution to these problem of unemployment in Isi-uzo local government in Enugu state and also serve as a basic for offering informed suggestions for improvement on its social –economic development and growth.It is envisage that finding suggestion and recommendation of this study will be beneficial to all members and non members of co-operative society and government as well.
Specifically this research will go a long way to encourage people to join co-operative society.To further the scope of this study discussion and the possible means of efficient implementation will be based on the following:
-Enhance economic society and cultural situation of strata within limited resources and opportunities as well as to promote their initiatives.
-Improve social condition and provide social services in the areas of housing, education, electricity, health and communication.
Increase personal and national wealth through campaigning against waste.
-It also impacts the element for democratic control of economic activity.Therefore since co-operative thinks about the enhancement of their member well being as their prime ideology. It has to work towards the achievement of the target.
Also this research study is primarily concerned in addition to the formal pronouncement of co-operative distribution on how to make them functional that is providing as social economic development and growth thereby creating job opportunities as the prime ingredient to achieving its aim.
One of the major problems in determining the effect of a public college on the local economy is linking the causality of the spill over effects and explaining the anomalies in the findings when observing unemployment. It is noted that there are two different types of or stages of unemployment.Long term unemployment that is attributable a poor economy.Frictional unemployment which is where a professional in temporarily unemployed after graduating or while they are in between jobs.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1 What are the number of people employed by co-operative societies in Isi-uzo local government Area?
2 What are the project co-operative can involve in?
3 What are the problem of co-operative societies in Isi-uzo local Government?
4 What are the socio-economic benefits of belonging to co-operative society?
5 Why do people form a joint co-operative societies?
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
The scope of the research is Isi-uzo local government area of Enugu State. The research is to determine the impact and effect of unemployment reduction through co-operative movement/societies with specific emphasis on Isi-uzo local government staff credit thrift and loans society.The research covers the operation of co-operative society with the intension of finding out to what extent they can create employment.In the course of generating this work, the researcher faced several handicaps which include non co-operative attitude of some officials visited which resulted in not giving all the information required about their operations inadequacy of data.
Most of the officers visited were not on sit despite several visitation made by the researcher.Finance has been a problem to the completion of the research. It limited frequent travels which ought to have made to the sample co-operative societies.Despite all this limitation the researcher tried to control several errors which would have affected the findings.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Co-operative:- According to ICA 1995, it is an autonomous association of persons united voluntary to meet their common economic social and cultural needs and aspiration through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.
Unemployment:- This is the state of being unemployed. It is the number or proportion of unemployed people.Unemployment occur when people are without work and actively seeking for work. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployment individuals currently in the labour force.
Tool:- A thing used to help carryout a particular job without much of stress.
Eliminates: This is the state of being extremely poor and enable amount.
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