Full Project – Automatic street light control system
Street light controllers are smarter versions of the mechanical or electronic timers previously used for street light ON-OFF operation. They come with energy conservation options like twilight saving, staggering or dimming. Also many street light controllers come with an astronomical clock for a particular location or a Global Positioning System (GPS) connection to give the best ON-OFF time and energy saving.
Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple and powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch to switch ON and OFF the street light automatically. By using this system manual works are removed. It automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights under illumination by sunlight. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR) which senses the light actually like our eyes
By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because now-a-days the manually operated street lights are not switched off properly even the sunlight comes and also not switched on earlier before sunset. In sunny and rainy days, ON time and OFF time differ significantly which is one of the major disadvantage of using timer circuits or manual.
This project exploits the working of a transistor in saturation region and cut-off region to switch ON and switch OFF the lights at appropriate time with the help of an electromagnetically operated switch.
A street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or walkway, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Modern lamps may also have light-sensitive photocells to turn them on at dusk, off at dawn, or activate automatically in dark weather. In older lighting this function would have been performed with the aid of a solar dial. It is not uncommon for street lights to be on poles which have wires strung between them, or mounted on utility poles.
This project exploits the working of a transistor in saturation region and cut-off region to switch ON and switch OFF the lights at appropriate time with the help of an electromagnetically operated switch
Automatic Streetlight needs no manual operation of switching ON and OFF. The system itself detects whether there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain value
In distinguishing between a developed and an undeveloped community, a criterion normally considered is the brightness of the community at night. This factor affects the economy of Africa in numerous ways. Because of this fact Africa has been tagged the “Dark Continent”.
It can be observed from satellite images taken at night that Africa is still underdeveloped. A major problem is in power generation in Africa. Power generated in Africa is insufficient and cannot cater for the needs of outdoor lights. Over the years the use of fossil fuels to generate electricity has not produced enviable results. Besides, fossil fuels have caused a lot of havoc to the ecosystem with Africa not being able to tap into the advantages of using fossil fuels to generate electricity. Therefore the need for an alternative source of generating electricity arises. The alternative source must be cheap, reliable and efficient.
An alternative energy source is solar energy. This is a preferable choice as Africa is in the tropics with considerable amount of sunlight in a day that can be converted into electricity.
Solar energy utilization is on the rise in our modern world as the fossil fuels have great adverse effect on our environment. Solar energy as a form of renewable energy has been in use since the times of Archimedes in 212 BC. At the time solar energy was being converted to heat energy for defence purposes. Other notable scientists have made countless improvements in the utilisation of solar energy since then. In 1839, Edmond Becquerel a French scientist discovered the photovoltaic effect.
In 1966 the first orbiting astronomical observatory was launched by NASA which was powered by 1KW photovoltaic array. As at 1999 the cumulative installed photovoltaic capacity in the world had skyrocketed to 1000MW. Today, solar energy is being used to generate electricity worldwide.
- AIM AND OBJECTIVE
The main purpose of this project is to develop an important power system controller that will power a load of to have a source of generating electricity that has no negative effect on the environment.
Academic environment suffer great set back in Nigeria today due to the constant outage of electricity in order to arrest and improve on the situation, an alternative source of electrical energy which will be more reliable, more efficient, easy and cheaper to construct and design has to be developed. This will keep business moving during the period of electrical power.
- JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Basic postulate is that to be chosen as energy source solar energy must be cheaper than alternative. But further, where the solar energy system is a secondary power source, it must compete on the basis of the “incremental” cost of the primary energy, reliability environmental pollution and limitation weight and area of the system are seen as other constraints on the choice of system.
Due to its variety of use and high reliability, the solar power finds application in event of major power failure in maintaining an uninterrupted service in the following areas.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this work shall cover the following areas:-
The work will cover the selection of solar charge controller, battery and interconnectors (cables) based on requirements of the system.
- Design analysis of the solar panels controller
- The economic analysis (bills of engineering measurement and evaluation)
- Testing and experimentation of the system
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The limitation of the solar energy, the amount of sunlight that arrives at the earth’s surface is not constant it varies depending on location, time of day, time of year and whether conditions because the sun doesn’t deliver that much energy to any one place at any one time, a large surface area is required to collect the energy at a useful rate.
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