Full Project – Attitude of parents toward polio immunization
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Immunization services were initiated in Nigeria in 1979 under the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1997, the EPI was renamed National Programme on Immunization (NPI) and was established as a parastatal of the federal ministry of health. NPI is charged with the responsibility of effectively control the six childhood killer diseases through immunization and provision of vaccine against the occurrence of the childhood killer diseases; poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, measles, tetanus, diphtheria and cerebrospinal meningitis etc. Government, community leaders, parent and public health workers put their efforts into making this a success through enlightenment campaigns on the importance of vaccinating of children freely and easily against these mentioned diseases especially poliomyelitis.
But however in Makama ‘A’ ward of Bauchi Local Government Council, the parent mostly rejects the oral polio vaccine. This is more related to the factors that most of the inhabitants there are from states that rejected the immunization and hard influences on native residence. This has resulted into reporting Bauchi State as one of the states in the federation that has reported the highest cases of polio infection.
Makama ‘A’ as a ward in Bauchi Local Government in Bauchi State has a lot of immigrant settlers mainly from Kano, Jigawa and Plateau State. Base on the fact that some years back Kano State Government rejected the immunization of its citizens against the background that the polio vaccine is contaminated and that lead to the rapid spread of diseases.
Therefore, the rationale behind this study is to determine the attitudes of parents living within makama ‘A’ ward of Bauchi Local Government Council towards oral polio vaccine.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Presently the Government of Nigeria has planned a National Programme on immunization (NPI) to control the childhood killer diseases, each year; more than 50,000 children are born in this country, with about 5,000 of them dying as a result of either of the childhood diseases. In addition to those who died, many are liable to brain damage, paralysis, chronic lung illness, deafness FMOH (2006). None of these should have happened if children were protected against these through immunization. (Basic guide for routine immunization services provider (2004).
However, it has been observed that, the behaviors and attitude of parents in makama ‘A’ of Bauchi Local Government Area towards the realization of oral polio vaccination is not encouraging. Many parents are not willing to allow the health personnel into their houses to administer oral polio vaccine to their children during Immunization Plus Days [IPDs]. Some seems to hide away from the official.
Therefore, it is against this background that we undertake the research to determine the attitude of parents of makama ‘A’ ward of Bauchi Local Government Area against polio vaccination.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions will guide the researcher in his studies.
- What is the level of awareness of parents in Makama ‘A’ ward toward oral polio immunization?
- What are the problems associated with immunization on oral polio among the parents of Makama ‘A’ ward?
- What are the interests of the community members towards oral polio vaccine?
- What are the reasons for the parent’s negative behavior towards oral polio vaccine in makama “A” ward?
1.4 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The Objective of the study include:-
- To examine out the level of awareness of parents in makama ‘A’ ward on oral polio eradication programme.
- To find out problems associated with oral polio immunization among the residence of Makama ‘A’ ward
- To examine out the reasons for the people’s perception on oral polio vaccine.
- To know the people’s attitudes toward oral polio vaccine.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of the study will reveal those factors that are responsible for the refusal of oral polio vaccine by the parents in makama ‘A’ ward. It will also highlight the general attitude of parents in that community toward oral polio vaccine.
The result of the study will also provide the basis for a review in the practice and policies of the National Programme on immunization. The result will also of greater importance for both academic and further research related to this topic.
1.6 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study was conducted only at five settlements out of the ten settlements in the ward; Unguwan kur, Ganjuwa, Unguwan Barde, Fadan Bayak and Jahun of makama ‘A’ ward of Bauchi Local Government Area.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Attitude: Attitude may be defined as a favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone exhibited in ones beliefs, feelings or intended behavior. In this study, it is a behavior, beliefs, actions and understanding about oral polio immunization.
Immunization: Immunization is used to refer to a process of preventing communicable diseases through vaccination. It is used in this contest to refer to mainly childhood killer diseases including poliomyelitis.
Parents: Parents is used in this context to refer to individual of child bearing age, both male and female from 18 years and above.
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Full Project – Attitude of parents toward polio immunization