Full Project – Assessment on the implication of poor construction drainage system on the environment

Full Project – Assessment on the implication of poor construction drainage system on the environment

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Thomas and Dedo, 2002 stated that “The basic underlying purpose of any drainage system is to keep people from water, to keep water from the people and to protect and enhance the environment while doing so”.

Patil, 2011says that during the rains, part of the rain water flows on surface and part of it percolates through the soil mass as gravitational water until it reaches to the ground water. Some water is retained in the pores of the soil mass and on the surface of the soil particles which cannot be drained by normal gravitational methods and this water is termed as held water. it is required that the surface water from the carriage way and shoulder should effectively be drained off without allowing it percolate to subgrade. The surface water from adjourning land should be prevented from entering the roadway. The side drains should have sufficient capacity and longitudinal slopes to carry away all the surface water collected. Also in water logged areas special precaution should be taken. There are many such roads which are not having the proper drainage system. This causes the failure of the roads due to many reasons like increase in moisture content, decrease in strength, mud pumping, formation of waves and corrugations, stripping of bitumen, cutting of edges of pavement, frost action etc.

Mwangi, 2013 stated that drainage is a must component in the road construction. In lay man language we know that tarmac and water are never “best friends” for this reason in most designs of the road, the first thing to be put in place is drainage system. The presence of water in the pavement layer will tend to reduce the bearing capacity of the road and thereby its lifetime. It is required that the surface water from carriage ways and the shoulders should be efficiently drained off without allowing it to the subgrade of the road.

Mwangi notes further that, it is essential that adequate provision is made for road drainage to ensure that a road pavement performs satisfactorily. The main function of a road drainage system is to prevent flooding of the road and ponding on the road surface, to protect the bearing capacity of the pavement and the sub-grade materials to avoid the erosion of side slopes.

Water and road construction do not make for a harmonious couple [Dawson 2008]. From this statement, Mwangi (2013) states “for this reason it can be seen that there is a very serious effect of poor drainage on maintenance on the condition of the road. Therefore surface water from adjoining land drain should be built in such a way that it will have a sufficient capacity and longitudinal slope to carry away all surface water collected.

Paul and Norman,1989 says that road structure has to be provided with an adequate drainage to remove precipitation from its surface as expeditiously as possible, failure to which early pavement distortions and deterioration eventually occur [Gichaga 1989]. Furthermore, flood waters are a deterrent to free traffic movement and create unnecessary perils for the uses of the facility. For the reason, road designers provide pavement crown and shoulder slopes to expedite the removal of surface water.

Mwangi, 2013  stated that as the water causes a serious impact on both the road access and it strength, an efficient drainage system is the most important part of urban road construction and maintenance works. Good drainage needs to be taken into consideration at the early design stages in order to secure a long life for the road with a well-designed drainage system, future rehabilitation and maintenance works can be considerably reduced and thus limit the cost of keeping the road in a good condition.


The account of creation revealed that all things were made and properly featured at strategic points of the lithosphere. But due to anthropogenic factors (such as farming and other construction or mining work) and natural activities (such as weathering among others). The features or topography of the earth becomes distorted thus; giving rise to environmental degradation caused by erosion (water erosion)

Whereas; the provision of sanitary drainage system could curtail the resultant effects.

Therefore, this study is restricted to the assessment on the implication of poor construction of drainage system in an environment at the case study area.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the need for the construction of sanitary drainage system at the case study area and reveal the adverse effect of lack or construction of substandard drainage system.


  1. This is to help in identifying the relevance of sanitary drainage system via recommendation
  2. To reveal the adverse effects of lack of sanitary drainage system
  3. To reveal the adverse effect of substandard drainage system
  4. To proffer solution to the challenge of lack of sanitary drainage system via recommendation



The broad objective of this project work is to assess the implication of poor construction of drainage system in an environment.


  1. To determine the presence of drainage system in the study area
  2. To identify the types of drainage system in the study area
  3. To reveal the adverse effect of lack of substandard sanitary drainage system
  4. To make recommendation on the findings



Are there drainage system in Kogi State College of Health sciences and technology, Idah?


Can the type of drainage system use in Kogi State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Idah be identified?


Could there be adverse effect of lack of sanitary drainage or substandard drainage system address?


What are the methods use to recommend the findings


Drainage:- it’s the action or the process of liquid waste or the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from an area. Drainage is also the process of removing or liquid from a place or premises.

Effluent:- liquid waste flowing out of a factory, farm, commercial establishment or a household into a water body such as river lake or lagoon or a sewer system or reservoir.

Sewer:- these are pipes used from one point to the other.

Environmental Engineering:- this is a branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering skills in providing facilities that can help to improve the distorted features of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and the entire ecosystem.

Flood:- it’s a common naturally occurring incidence where water over flows the tract of the drainage system thereby submerging the land which is usually dry.

Drain stoppage:- this refers to the blockage of the drainage system due to the presence of a substance of particles capable of obstructing the flow of the sewage Silage or effluent. It occur when occupant of a premises dump waste into the drainage system or if the width of the drainage system is smaller/larger than necessary

Trench:- a trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground that is generally deeper it is wide and narrow to enhance drainage.

Environment:- This is the sum of all total surrounding of a living organisms. Including natural force and other living things, which provides conditions for development and growth as well as of danger and damage?

Environmental:- This is the study of the interaction of the living and non – living component of the environment with special emphasis on the impact of human or component.

Health: this can be defined as the state of complete physical, mental and social well being of an individual not merely in the absence of disease or infirmity.

Environmental Health: this is act and sciences of the protection of good health, the promotion of aesthetic value and prevention of disease and injury through the control of positive environmental factor and reduction of pathogens. It can also be defined as the control of all these factors on man’s physical environment which exercise or may exercise a deleterious effect on man’s physical development, health and survival.

Implication: this is the process of having a necessary consequence or compliment.


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Full Project – Assessment on the implication of poor construction drainage system on the environment