Full Project – Assessment of diarrhea in children 0-5 years at the General Hospital

Full Project – Assessment of diarrhea in children 0-5 years at the General Hospital

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In the last decade a significant increase in infant mortality had been noted in developing countries.

The most common cause has been attributed to diarrhea in children under 0-5 years; such children may experience many as 10 episodes of diarrhea per year although a rate of three to four episodes per years is more common.

In most areas young children spend 15-20% of their time with diarrhea illness. Diarrhea episodes result in approximately 3.2 million deaths each year among below five years.

About 80% of these deaths occur in the first 5 years of life. Diarrhea is the frequent passage of loose or watery stool for about four times a day, which leads to fluid loss and electrolytes imbalance and possibly death of the baby. It is dangerous especially in children under 5 years because the digestive system of an infant can be easily disturbed not only by disease of any of the body.

Since these children are the leaders of tomorrow, strict care and attention should be given to them.

The poor knowledge about the causes of this disease is of great concern and inappropriate treatment will present the patient in a very poor prognosis. This disease is managed in most parts of the country by the use of herbs and modern therapy which still have a low response. This brings about devastating effect on the child’s development.

This problem was observed through the cases that were reported at General Hospital, Idah. The researcher observed that majority of children under 5 years is suffering from diarrhea disease.

History revealed that this had been the major health problem among children less than 5 years in this hospital. This subsequently triggered that interest of the researcher to really find the factors responsible for the occurrence of this disease in the hospital.

In view of the above health problem, a sample of some children was selected from the hospital. The questions that researcher of this study kept asking is: What could be the etiological factors of diarrhea in these children? Could it be due to low level of education among their parent? Is it a common knowledge people have on the prevention of diarrhea? Because education plays an important role in one’s ability of preventing diarrhea.

However, some educated people seem to be health illiterates and may not know the predisposing factors of diarrhea. This made the researcher more determined to explore the causes of diarrhea among the people. The causes of diarrhea among the victims in the hospital includes: Ignorance, contaminated foods and water intake, poor environmental hygiene, poor personal hygiene and feeding, neglect of exclusive breast feeding etc. The health workers especially Community Health Extension Workers (CHEW), Junior Community Health Extension Workers (JCHEW), Community Health Officers (CHO) have a great role to play in the prevention and promotion of healthy living through health education to the people in the rural areas.


General Hospital, Idah was located at Ega, opposite Central Mosque, Idah, Kogi state. The hospital has many wards such as female ward, male ward, children ward, labour ward, diagnosis unit, mortuary section, pharmacy store, Out-Patient Department (OPD), etc. They have qualified (professional) doctors, nurses, midwives, lab scientists, etc. non professionals e.g. cleaners, drivers, messengers, etc.


An assessment of diarrhea among children of 0-5 years, a case study of General Hospital, Idah, Kogi State, based on the study to find out the causes of diarrhea and to review some ways whereby the problems can be prevented, controlled and treated.

  1. To investigate the factors responsible for high incidence of diarrhea among children of age 0-5 years.
  2. To identify the causes of diarrhea and its high incidence among the children.
  3. To determine how poor dietary habit can contribute to diarrhea disease.
  4. To health educate the people on good personal and environmental hygiene.
  5. To suggest possible ways of measures of reducing the occurrence of diarrhea in children.
  6. The findings of the study will make the people appreciate the need, efficiency and use of Salt-Sugar Solution (SSS) in the management of diarrhea.
  7. The researcher’s work will be to the knowledge of the people, the necessary on the need for proper hygiene, good balance diet and environmental health.
  8. The outcome of the study can outline preventive, promotive measure for further assessment of diarrhea disease among the people.
  9. How can diarrhea disease be prevented?
  10. What are the factors responsible for diarrhea disease in children?
  11. Can diarrhea disease lead to dehydration and malnutrition?
  12. Can diarrhea disease results from other disease like measles infection, mal-absorption syndrome and allergy to ingested food?

The researcher carried out her study at General Hospital, Idah, Kogi State, between February 20th to 20th July, 2016 on Assessment of Diarrhea among the children from 0-5 years.



Diarrhea: is the frequent passage of loose or watery stool for about more than three times within 26 hours which leads to fluid loss and electrolytes imbalance.

Dehydration: loss of fluid from the body.

Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT): is a solution produced by the combination of salt, sugar and other electrolyte given to patients to correct dehydration.

Salt-Sugar Solution (SSS): is a solution of salt and sugar only prepared locally to replace lost fluid.

Weaning Process: is the act of giving other food supplements to a baby apart from, the natural breast milk.

Malnutrition: deficiency in the nutritive value of an individual.

Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT): a long tube through which food passes. It started from the mouth and ends in the anus.

Diverhculitis: in inflammation of the dierculum sac or punch found on any part of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Full Project – Assessment of diarrhea in children 0-5 years at the General Hospital