Full Project – An expert system for awareness of HIV/AIDS
1.1 Background of Study
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines finds solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which influences how artificial the intelligent behaviour appears(Champandard, 2001).
AI is generally associated with Computer Science, but it has many important links with otherfields such as Maths, Psychology, Cognition, Biology and Philosophy, among many others. Our ability to combine knowledge from all these fields will ultimately benefit our progress in the quest of creating an intelligent artificial being (Champandard, 2001).The application of an artificial intelligence on medical field emerged in the 1970’s in response to simultaneous needs, opportunity and interests. An increase demand for high quality medical knowledge have led to suggestions that computer programs could be used to assist physicians and other health care provider5s in discharge of their clinical role of diagnosis, therapy and treatment.( Patel, 2009 )
One of the main applications of artificial intelligence is the development of expert system.An Expert System is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, like an expert, and not by following the procedure of a developer as is the case in conventional programming (Peter S, 2000).
Expert system has recently been widely used in medical field for diagnosis, treatment, guidance and many more.
WHO(world health organisation) report on HIV shows that it is necessary to aware people on hiv/aids in other to help control the disease and to have a HIV free generation. One of the main medium of this awareness is by creating an expert system which willemulate the decision-making ability of a human expert.
AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The illness alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. This susceptibility worsens as the disease progresses.(UNICEF, 2000).
HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person (semen and vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk). The virus is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivering the baby during childbirth, and through breast feeding.
HIV can be transmitted in many ways, such as vaginal, oral sex, anal sex, blood transfusion, and contaminated hypodermic needles.
Both the virus and the disease are often referred to together as HIV/AIDS. People with HIV have what is called HIV infection. As a result, some will then develop AIDS. The development of numerous opportunistic infections in an AIDS patient can ultimately lead to death.
AIDS was first described as a disease entity in 1981 in Los Angeles in the united state of America. By mid-1982,over 350 people have been diagnosed as having AIDS and more than 90% of this people were homosexuals. The causative agent ,HIV was first identified in 1983-1984,case reports appeared from other parts of the world involving haemophiliacs, blood transfusion and infusion of clotting factor concentrate,(UNAIDS, 1998).
According to research, the origins of HIV date back to the late nineteenth or early twentieth century in west-central Africa. AIDS and its cause, HIV, were first identified and recognized in the early 1980s.
There is currently no cure for HIV/AIDS. Treatments can slow the course of the disease – some infected people can live a long and relatively healthy life.
The first two cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria were identified in 1985 and were reported at an international AIDS conference in 1986.In 1987 the Nigerian health sector established the National AIDS Advisory Committee, which was shortly followed by the establishment of the National Expert Advisory Committee on AIDS (NEACA).
At first the Nigerian government was slow to respond to the increasing rates of HIV transmission and it was only in 1991 that the Federal Ministry of Health made their first attempt to assess the situation with HIV and AIDS in Nigeria. The results showed that around 1.8 per cent of the population of Nigeria were infected with HIV. Subsequent surveillance reports revealed that during the 1990s HIV prevalence rose from 3.8 per cent in 1993 to 5.4 per cent in 1999. Following a peak of 5.8 per cent in 2001, HIV prevalence then declined steadily throughout the decade. This work develops an expert system on awareness of HIV/AIDs.
1.2 Problem Statement
Since the last few decades,HIV/AIDS has become the greatest epidemic ever in the history of mankind and all indications are that, its threat will continue to increase. It was recorded that there are 75 million people living with HIV worldwide, 28.5 million (75%) of which reside in Africa are infected with HIV virus. Nigeria is responsible for 20% of Africa’s total AIDS figure and 10% of the world’s. (UNAIDS, 2012)
With an official prevalence rate of 3.5 million PLWHA and 1.5 million AIDS orphans and 3000 deaths annually,HIV and AIDS has become a generalised epidemic.Many people especially in the poverty stricken country are ignorant of the disease. It depletes the resources of the sufferers, their families and the society at large.
The epidemic is already over-burdening health personnel and the health services. If the incidence should rise beyond the capability of health personnel and the entire system will collapse and the virus will become more wide spread. Patients with HIV/AIDS may take up 10 or 20% of bed occupancy in most secondary and tertiary hospitals.
Since there is no scientific proof of any medical cure for the disease, the only effective means of fighting it is prevention and control. This research is intended to use computer programs to develop an expert System to create awareness as a preventive measure among people. Expert system on awareness campaign and control of HIV/AIDS through the use of computer will provide adequate knowledge on the disease.
This Project was undertaken because of the observation overtime in the increase in spread of hiv/aids which has become a threat to the entire human race; this is mostly caused by lack of awareness about the disease. Since computer is considered to be one of the most powerful tools for creating awareness. The Project is intended to use computer programs to develop an expert system that creates awareness as a preventive and control measure.
1.4 Objectives of the Project
The main objective of this project is to build an Expert System that will educate users on the impact of HIV/AIDS to humanity:
– Build a system that will interact with individuals to give the best and appropriate response. People relate more freely with computers than other human expert in this situation.
– Build a system where in-depth analyses of the HIV virus can be found. Since the programs contains relevant information on the virus.
– Provide a first aid self-diagnosis for the individuals to check if tshere are likely to be infected with HIV virus
The following Steps will be taken in order to meet the objective of this work:
– Review of the literatures on the subject matter.
– A database will be designed to make information retrieval easy.
– The method of data collection will be a direct interview with medical doctors as well as surfing the internet which will form the knowledge store of the expert system.
– MYSQL will be the platform for the database.
– PHP will be used as the server side scripting language to implement the functionality of the system
1.6 Organization of the project
The work is divided into five (5) chapters. Chapter one introduces this work, its objectives and the methods to follow to achieve those objectives. Chapter two consist of literature review on expert system, it talks about related work. Chapter three describes the main functionality of the systemand design of the major components of the system. Chapter four describes the implementation of the system. Chapter five consists of conclusion and provides some essential recommendation.
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Full Project – An expert system for awareness of HIV/AIDS